Ejection Fraction
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2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Yogamaya Mantha ◽  
Shutaro Futami ◽  
Shohei Moriyama ◽  
Michinari Hieda

The hemodynamic effects of aortic stenosis (AS) consist of increased left ventricular (LV) afterload, reduced myocardial compliance, and increased myocardial workload. The LV in AS patients faces a double load: valvular and arterial loads. As such, the presence of symptoms and occurrence of adverse events in AS should better correlate with calculating the global burden faced by the LV in addition to the transvalvular gradient and aortic valve area (AVA). The valvulo-arterial impedance (Zva) is a useful parameter providing an estimate of the global LV hemodynamic load that results from the summation of the valvular and vascular loads. In addition to calculating the global LV afterload, it is paramount to estimate the stenosis severity accurately. In clinical practice, the management of low-flow low-gradient (LF-LG) severe AS with preserved LV ejection fraction requires careful confirmation of stenosis severity. In addition to the Zva, the dimensionless index (DI) is a very useful parameter to express the size of the effective valvular area as a proportion of the cross-section area of the left ventricular outlet tract velocity-time integral (LVOT-VTI) to that of the aortic valve jet (dimensionless velocity ratio). The DI is calculated by a ratio of the sub-valvular velocity obtained by pulsed-wave Doppler (LVOT-VTI) divided by the maximum velocity obtained by continuous-wave Doppler across the aortic valve (AV-VTI). In contrast to AVA measurement, the DI does not require the calculation of LVOT cross-sectional area, a major cause of erroneous assessment and underestimation of AVA. Hence, among patients with LG severe AS and preserved LV ejection fraction, calculation of DI in routine echocardiographic practice may be useful to identify a subgroup of patients at higher risk of mortality who may derive benefit from aortic valve replacement. This article aims to elucidate the Zva and DI in different clinical situations, correlate with the standard indexes of AS severity, LV geometry, and function, and thus prove to improve risk stratification and clinical decision making in patients with severe AS.

Maria Batsis ◽  
Lazaros Kochilas ◽  
Alvin J. Chin ◽  
Michael Kelleman ◽  
Eric Ferguson ◽  

Background For patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, digoxin has been associated with reduced interstage mortality after the Norwood operation, but the mechanism of this benefit remains unclear. Preservation of right ventricular (RV) echocardiographic indices has been associated with better outcomes in hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Therefore, we sought to determine whether digoxin use is associated with preservation of the RV indices in the interstage period. Methods and Results We conducted a retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected data using the public use data set from the Pediatric Heart Network Single Ventricle Reconstruction trial, conducted in 15 North American centers between 2005 and 2008. We included all patients who survived the interstage period and had echocardiographic data post‐Norwood and pre‐Glenn operations. We used multivariable linear regression to compare changes in RV parameters, adjusting for relevant covariates. Of 289 patients, 94 received digoxin at discharge post‐Norwood. There were no significant differences in baseline clinical characteristics or post‐Norwood echocardiographic RV indices (RV end‐diastolic volume indexed, RV end‐systolic volume indexed, ejection fraction) in the digoxin versus no‐digoxin groups. At the end of the interstage period and after adjustment for relevant covariates, patients on digoxin had better preserved RV indices compared with those not on digoxin for the ΔRV end‐diastolic volume (11 versus 15 mL, P =0.026) and the ΔRV end‐systolic volume (6 versus 9 mL, P =0.009) with the indexed ΔRV end‐systolic volume (11 versus 20 mL/BSA 1.3 , P =0.034). The change in the RV ejection fraction during the interstage period between the 2 groups did not meet statistical significance (−2 versus −5, P =0.056); however, the trend continued to be favorable for the digoxin group. Conclusions Digoxin use during the interstage period is associated with better preservation of the RV volume and tricuspid valve measurements leading to less adverse remodeling of the single ventricle. These findings suggest a possible mechanism of action explaining digoxin’s survival benefit during the interstage period.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Blanka Morvai-Illés ◽  
Nóra Polestyuk-Németh ◽  
István Adorján Szabó ◽  
Magdolna Monoki ◽  
Luna Gargani ◽  

Background: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a growing healthcare burden, and its prevalence is steadily increasing. Lung ultrasound (LUS) is a promising screening and prognostic tool in the heart failure population. However, more information on its value in predicting outcome is needed.Aims: The aim of our study was to assess the prognostic performance of LUS B-lines compared to traditional and novel clinical and echocardiographic parameters and natriuretic peptide levels in patients with newly diagnosed HFpEF in an ambulatory setting.Methods: In our prospective cohort study, all ambulatory patients with clinical suspicion of HFpEF underwent comprehensive echocardiography, lung ultrasound and NT-proBNP measurement during their first appointment at our cardiology outpatient clinic. Our endpoint was a composite of worsening heart failure symptoms requiring hospitalization or loop diuretic dose escalation and death.Results: We prospectively enrolled 75 consecutive patients with HFpEF who matched our inclusion and exclusion criteria. We detected 11 events on a 26 ± 10-months follow-up. We found that the predictive value of B-lines is similar to the predictive value of NT-proBNP (AUC 0.863 vs. 0.859), with the best cut-off at >15 B-lines. Having more B-lines than 15 significantly increased the likelihood of adverse events with a hazard ratio of 20.956 (p = 0.004). The number of B-lines remained an independent predictor of events at multivariate modeling. Having more than 15 B-lines lines was associated with a significantly worse event-free survival (Log-rank: 16.804, p < 0.001).Conclusion: The number of B-lines seems to be an independent prognostic factor for adverse outcomes in HFpEF. Since it is an easy-to-learn, feasible and radiation-free method, it may add substantial value to the commonly used diagnostic and risk stratification models.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Dashuai Wang ◽  
Su Wang ◽  
Jia Wu ◽  
Sheng Le ◽  
Fei Xie ◽  

Objectives: Postoperative hyperlactatemia (POHL) is common in patients undergoing cardiac surgery and is associated with poor outcomes. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate two predictive models for POHL in patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery (ECS).Methods: We conducted a multicenter retrospective study enrolling 13,454 adult patients who underwent ECS. All patients involved in the analysis were randomly assigned to a training set and a validation set. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors for POHL in the training cohort. Based on these independent predictors, the nomograms were constructed to predict the probability of POHL and were validated in the validation cohort.Results: A total of 1,430 patients (10.6%) developed POHL after ECS. Age, preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction, renal insufficiency, cardiac surgery history, intraoperative red blood cell transfusion, and cardiopulmonary bypass time were independent predictors and were used to construct a full nomogram. The second nomogram was constructed comprising only the preoperative factors. Both models showed good predictive ability, calibration, and clinical utility. According to the predicted probabilities, four risk groups were defined as very low risk (<0.05), low risk (0.05–0.1), medium risk (0.1–0.3), and high risk groups (>0.3), corresponding to scores of ≤ 180 points, 181–202 points, 203–239 points, and >239 points on the full nomogram, respectively.Conclusions: We developed and validated two nomogram models to predict POHL in patients undergoing ECS. The nomograms may have clinical utility in risk estimation, risk stratification, and targeted interventions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (30) ◽  
pp. 38-42
G. N. Mukhambetova ◽  
O. S. Polunina ◽  
L. P. Voronina ◽  
N. B. Greenberg ◽  
E. A. Polunina ◽  

The aim of the research. To study levels of the apoptosis biomarkers annexin A5 (AnxA5) and Bcl‑2 and to identify the presence of correlations of structural and functional parameters of the myocardium with the level of the studied biomarkers in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICMP).Materials and methods. Patients with ICMP (n = 47) were examined as the main group. The control group included 30 somatically healthy individuals. Bcl‑2 and APA5 levels were determined in the blood serum by the enzyme immunoassay.Results. It was found that in the group of patients with ICMP. The level of AnxA5 was statistically significantly higher (p < 0.001), and the level of Bcl‑2 was statistically significantly lower (p < 0.001) than in the control group. Based on the results of the correlation analysis a noticeable close relationship on the Cheddock scale was revealed between levels of the studied apoptosis biomarkers and the values of the sphericity index of in diastole and systole of left ventricle (LV), final diastolic and systolic volume of LV and ejection fraction of LV. Between the other parameters of myocardial remodeling and levels of the studied biomarkers of apoptosis, the closeness of relationships on the Cheddock scale were weak and moderate.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (23) ◽  
pp. 5677
Mohammad A. Almesned ◽  
Femke M. Prins ◽  
Erik Lipšic ◽  
Margery A. Connelly ◽  
Erwin Garcia ◽  

The gut metabolite trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) at admission has a prognostic value in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. However, its sequential changes and relationship with long-term infarct-related outcomes after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remain elusive. We delineated the temporal course of TMAO and its relationship with infarct size and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) post-PCI, adjusting for the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We measured TMAO levels at admission, 24 h and 4 months post-PCI in 379 STEMI patients. Infarct size and LVEF were determined by cardiac magnetic resonance 4 months after PCI. TMAO levels decreased from admission (4.13 ± 4.37 μM) to 24 h (3.41 ± 5.84 μM, p = 0.001) and increased from 24 h to 4 months (3.70 ± 3.86 μM, p = 0.026). Higher TMAO values at 24 h were correlated to smaller infarct sizes (rho = −0.16, p = 0.024). Larger declines between admission and 4 months suggestively correlated with smaller infarct size, and larger TMAO increases between 24 h and 4 months were associated with larger infarct size (rho = −0.19, p = 0.008 and rho = −0.18, p = 0.019, respectively). Upon eGFR stratification using 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 as a cut-off, significant associations between TMAO and infarct size were only noted in subjects with impaired renal function. In conclusion, TMAO levels in post-PCI STEMI patients are prone to fluctuations, and these fluctuations could be prognostic for infarct size, particularly in patients with impaired renal function.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Raluca Sirbu Prisecaru ◽  
Cristina Leatu ◽  
Leila Riahi ◽  
Victor Costache

Abstract Purpose To compare the predictive accuracy of five different algorithms as verified by successful ablation site using 3D electroanatomical non-contact mapping in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic but high ventricular burden RVOT tachycardias. Methods 28 Consecutive patients admitted for radiofrequency catheter ablation for symptomatic and asymptomatic, but high ventricular burden idiopathic VPC were recruited for this study. All patients had previous failed or intolerant to beta-blocker and/or at least one class IC anti-arrhythmic agents, and they had normal left ventricular ejection fraction. All patients had documented monomorphic VPC with left bundle branch block morphology and an inferior axis. Concordance of the arrhythmia origin based on ECG algorithm and 3D mapping system site were further evaluated. Of the five algorithms, two algorithms with easy‐applicability and having a memorable design (Dixit and Joshi) and three algorithms with more complex and detailed design (Ito, Zhang, Pytkowski) were selected for comparisons. Results Assessment of the diagnostic accuracy showed that each of the five algorithms had only moderate accuracy, and the greatest accuracy was observed in the algorithm proposed by Pytkowski algorithm when assessed by a general cardiologist and Dixit algorithm when evaluated by the electrophysiologist. However, when the algorithms were compared for their accuracy, specificity, sensitivity, no significant differences were found (p = 0.99). Conclusions The ECG based algorithms for precise localising RVOTA origin simplify the mapping process, reduce the procedural and fluoroscopic time, and improve clinical outcomes, resulting in greater clinical utility. All the five published 12-lead ECG algorithms for ROTVA differentiation were similar in terms of the diagnostic accuracy, specificity, sensitivity and LRs.

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