comorbidity burden
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2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mohamad B. Taha ◽  
Javier Valero-Elizondo ◽  
Tamer Yahya ◽  
César Caraballo ◽  
Rohan Khera ◽  
...  

<b>Objective:</b> Health-related expenditures due to diabetes are rising in the US. Medication nonadherence is associated with worse health outcomes among adults with diabetes. <a>We sought to examine the extent of reported cost-related medication nonadherence (CRN) in individuals with diabetes in the US</a>. <p><b>Research Design and Methods: </b>We studied adults ≥18 with self-reported diabetes from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS; 2013-18), a US nationally representative survey. Adults reporting skipping doses, taking less medication, or delaying filling a prescription to save money in the past year were considered to have experienced CRN. The weighted prevalence of CRN was estimated overall and by age subgroups (<65 and ≥65 years). Logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic characteristics independently associated with CRN. </p> <p><b>Results: </b>Of the 20,326 NHIS participants with diabetes, 17.6% (weighted: 2.3 million) of those aged <65 reported CRN, compared with 6.9% (weighted: 0.7 million) among those aged ≥65. Financial hardship from medical bills, lack of insurance, low-income, high comorbidity burden and female sex were independently associated with CRN across age groups. Lack of insurance, duration of diabetes, current smoking, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia were associated with higher odds of reporting CRN among the non-elderly, but not among the elderly. Among elderly, insulin use significantly increased the odds of reporting CRN (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.18, 1.92).</p> <p><b>Conclusions: </b>In the US, 1 in 6 non-elderly and 1 in 14 elderly adults with diabetes reported CRN. Removing financial barriers to accessing medications may improve medication adherence among these patients, with the potential to improve their outcomes.</p>


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Michael E Tang ◽  
Thaidra Gaufin ◽  
Ryan Anson ◽  
Wenhong Zhu ◽  
William C Mathews ◽  
...  

Background We investigated the effect of HIV on COVID-19 outcomes with attention to selection bias due to differential testing and to comorbidity burden. Methods Retrospective cohort analysis using four hierarchical outcomes: positive SARS-CoV-2 test, COVID-19 hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and hospital mortality. The effect of HIV status was assessed using traditional covariate-adjusted, inverse probability weighted (IPW) analysis based on covariate distributions for testing bias (testing IPWs), HIV infection status (HIV IPWs), and combined models. Among PWH, we evaluated whether CD4 count and HIV plasma viral load (pVL) discriminated between those who did or did not develop study outcomes using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results Between March and November 2020, 63,319 people were receiving primary care services at UCSD, of whom 4,017 were people living with HIV (PWH). PWH had 2.1 times the odds of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test compared to those without HIV after weighting for potential testing bias, comorbidity burden, and HIV-IPW (95% CI 1.6-2.8). Relative to persons without HIV, PWH did not have an increased rate of COVID-19 hospitalization after controlling for comorbidities and testing bias [adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR): 0.5, 95% CI: 0.1-1.4]. PWH had neither a different rate of ICU admission (aIRR:1.08, 95% CI; 0.31-3.80) nor in-hospital death (aIRR:0.92, 95% CI; 0.08-10.94) in any examined model. Neither CD4 count nor pVL predicted any of the hierarchical outcomes among PWH. Conclusions PWH have a higher risk of COVID-19 diagnosis but similar outcomes compared to those without HIV.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mohamad B. Taha ◽  
Javier Valero-Elizondo ◽  
Tamer Yahya ◽  
César Caraballo ◽  
Rohan Khera ◽  
...  

<b>Objective:</b> Health-related expenditures due to diabetes are rising in the US. Medication nonadherence is associated with worse health outcomes among adults with diabetes. <a>We sought to examine the extent of reported cost-related medication nonadherence (CRN) in individuals with diabetes in the US</a>. <p><b>Research Design and Methods: </b>We studied adults ≥18 with self-reported diabetes from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS; 2013-18), a US nationally representative survey. Adults reporting skipping doses, taking less medication, or delaying filling a prescription to save money in the past year were considered to have experienced CRN. The weighted prevalence of CRN was estimated overall and by age subgroups (<65 and ≥65 years). Logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic characteristics independently associated with CRN. </p> <p><b>Results: </b>Of the 20,326 NHIS participants with diabetes, 17.6% (weighted: 2.3 million) of those aged <65 reported CRN, compared with 6.9% (weighted: 0.7 million) among those aged ≥65. Financial hardship from medical bills, lack of insurance, low-income, high comorbidity burden and female sex were independently associated with CRN across age groups. Lack of insurance, duration of diabetes, current smoking, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia were associated with higher odds of reporting CRN among the non-elderly, but not among the elderly. Among elderly, insulin use significantly increased the odds of reporting CRN (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.18, 1.92).</p> <p><b>Conclusions: </b>In the US, 1 in 6 non-elderly and 1 in 14 elderly adults with diabetes reported CRN. Removing financial barriers to accessing medications may improve medication adherence among these patients, with the potential to improve their outcomes.</p>


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 340
Author(s):  
Ioannis Parodis ◽  
Paul Studenic

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disorder that has detrimental effects on patient’s health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Owing to its immense heterogeneity of symptoms and its complexity regarding comorbidity burden, management of SLE necessitates interdisciplinary care, with the goal being the best possible HRQoL and long-term outcomes. Current definitions of remission, low disease activity, and response to treatment do not incorporate self-reported patient evaluation, while it has been argued that the physician’s global assessment should capture the patient’s perspective. However, even the judgment of a very well-trained physician might not replace a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM), not only owing to the multidimensionality of self-perceived health experience but also since this notion would constitute a direct contradiction to the definition of PROMs. The proper use of PROMs is not only an important conceptual issue but also an opportunity to build bridges in the partnership between patients and physicians. These points of consideration adhere to the overall framework that there will seldom be one single best marker that helps interpret the activity, severity, and impact of SLE at the same time. For optimal outcomes, we not only stress the importance of the use of PROMs but also emphasize the urgency of adoption of the conception of forming alliances with patients and facilitating patient participation in surveillance and management processes. Nevertheless, this should not be misinterpreted as a transfer of responsibility from healthcare professionals to patients but rather a step towards shared decision-making.


Heart ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. heartjnl-2021-320270
Author(s):  
Yohei Sotomi ◽  
Shungo Hikoso ◽  
Sho Komukai ◽  
Taiki Sato ◽  
Bolrathanak Oeun ◽  
...  

ObjectiveThe pathophysiological heterogeneity of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) makes the conventional ‘one-size-fits-all’ treatment approach difficult. We aimed to develop a stratification methodology to identify distinct subphenotypes of acute HFpEF using the latent class analysis.MethodsWe established a prospective, multicentre registry of acute decompensated HFpEF. Primary candidates for latent class analysis were patient data on hospital admission (160 features). The patient subset was categorised based on enrolment period into a derivation cohort (2016–2018; n=623) and a validation cohort (2019–2020; n=472). After excluding features with significant missingness and high degree of correlation, 83 features were finally included in the analysis.ResultsThe analysis subclassified patients (derivation cohort) into 4 groups: group 1 (n=215, 34.5%), characterised by arrythmia triggering (especially atrial fibrillation) and a lower comorbidity burden; group 2 (n=77, 12.4%), with substantially elevated blood pressure and worse classical HFpEF echocardiographic features; group 3 (n=149, 23.9%), with the highest level of GGT and total bilirubin and frequent previous hospitalisation for HF and group 4 (n=182, 29.2%), with infection-triggered HF hospitalisation, high C reactive protein and worse nutritional status. The primary end point—a composite of all-cause death and HF readmission—significantly differed between the groups (log-rank p<0.001). These findings were consistent in the validation cohort.ConclusionsThis study indicated the feasibility of clinical application of the latent class analysis in a highly heterogeneous cohort of patients with acute HFpEF. Patients can be divided into 4 phenotypes with distinct patient characteristics and clinical outcomes.Trial registration numberUMIN000021831.


Author(s):  
Hand F Mahmoud ◽  
Hebatullah EMZ Elmedany

Introduction: Fall is considered by far one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the elderly population. Fall is almost always multifactorial. This study looks into the relation between different comorbidities, polypharmacy and falls.Methods: A descriptive and prospective study, the study population comprised 150 elderly patients aged > 60 years old, males and females, patients with previous history of falls are excluded. Comorbidity burden, polypharmacy and risk of falls were assessed.Results and Discussion: There was a significant positive correlation between Number of comorbidities, medications and risk of falls and there was a significant association between high risk of falls and presence of DM, PVD, OLD CVA and UI. Also, there was a significant positive correlation between age and risk of falls.Conclusion: Multiple comorbidities, polypharmacy and increasing age increase risk of falls.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 06 No. 01 January’22 Page: 75-79


2021 ◽  
pp. 026921632110586
Author(s):  
Karen Ho ◽  
Krystyna Wang ◽  
Adam Clay ◽  
Elizabeth Gibbings

Background: Goals of care discussions ensure patients receive the care that they want. Recent studies have recognized the opportunity for allied health professionals, such as nurses, in facilitating goals of care discussions. However, the outcomes of such interventions are not well studied. Aim: To compare the outcomes of goals of care discussions led by physicians and nurses. Design: This is a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to an Internal Medicine unit from January 2018 to August 2019. A comprehensive chart review was performed on a random sample of patients. Patient’s decision to accept or refuse cardiopulmonary resuscitation was recorded and analyzed. Analysis was stratified by patients’ comorbidity burden and illness severity. Setting/Participants: The study took place at a tertiary care center and included 200 patients. Patients aged ⩾ 18 were included. Patients who have had pre-existing goals of care documentation were excluded. Results: About 52% of the goals of care discussions were completed by nurses and 48% by physicians. Patients were more likely to accept cardiopulmonary resuscitation in nurse-led discussions compared to physician-led ones (80.8% vs 61.4%, p = 0.003). Multiple regression showed that patients with higher comorbidity burden (OR 0.71, 95% CI: 0.62–0.82), more severe illness (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.88–0.99), and physician-led goals of care discussions (OR 0.30, 95% CI: 0.15–0.62) were less likely to accept cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Conclusions: There was a significant difference between the outcomes of goals of care discussions led by nurses and physicians. Patients were more likely to accept aggressive resuscitative measures in nurse-led goals of care discussions. Further research efforts are needed to identify the factors contributing to this discrepancy, and to devise ways of improving goals of care discussion delivery.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 95
Author(s):  
Yu-Ri Woo ◽  
Sehee Wang ◽  
Kyung-Ah Sohn ◽  
Hei-Sung Kim

Prurigo nodularis (PN) is a chronic dermatosis typified by extraordinarily itchy nodules. However, little is known of the nature and extent of PN in Asian people. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology, comorbidities, and prescription pattern of PN in Koreans based on a large dermatology outpatient cohort. Patients with PN were identified from the Catholic Medical Center (CMC) clinical data warehouse. Anonymized data on age, sex, diagnostic codes, prescriptions, visitation dates, and other relevant parameters were collected. Pearson correlation analysis was used to calculate the correlation between PN prevalence and patient age. Conditional logistic regression modeling was adopted to measure the comorbidity risk of PN. A total of 3591 patients with PN were identified at the Catholic Medical Center Health System dermatology outpatient clinic in the period 2007–2020. A comparison of the study patients with age- and sex-matched controls (dermatology outpatients without PN) indicated that PN was associated with various comorbidities including chronic kidney disease (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.29–1.70), dyslipidemia (aOR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.56–2.27), type 2 diabetes mellitus (aOR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.22–1.54), arterial hypertension (aOR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.30–1.73), autoimmune thyroiditis (aOR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.42–4.16), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (aOR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.23–3.07), and atopic dermatitis (aOR, 2.16, 95% CI, 1.91–2.45). Regarding prescription patterns, topical steroids were most favored, followed by topical calcineurin inhibitors; oral antihistamines were the most preferred systemic agent for PN. PN is a relatively rare but significant disease among Korean dermatology outpatients with a high comorbidity burden compared to dermatology outpatients without PN. There is great need for breakthroughs in PN treatment.


2021 ◽  
Vol 76 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Matt P. Malcolm ◽  
Adam R. Kinney ◽  
James E. Graham

Importance: Occupational therapy in the neurological critical care unit (NCCU) may enable safe community discharge by restoring functional ability. However, the influence of patient characteristics and NCCU occupational therapy on discharge disposition is largely unknown. Objective: To examine how patient factors and receipt of occupational therapy predict discharge disposition for NCCU patients. Design: Retrospective cross-sectional cohort study of electronic health records data from adults admitted to the NCCU between May 2013 and September 30, 2015. Setting: NCCU in a large urban academic hospital. Participants: Adults age 18 yr or older (N = 1,134) admitted to the NCCU. Outcomes and Measures: Using logistic regression with discharge disposition as the dependent variable, we entered sex, age, length of stay (LOS), baseline Glasgow Coma Scale score, Elixhauser Comorbidity Index, and receipt of occupational therapy services as predictor variables. Results: Of NCCU patients, 39% received occupational therapy. Younger age, shorter LOS, lower comorbidity burden, and not receiving occupational therapy services increased the likelihood of discharge to the community. Men who received occupational therapy were less likely to be discharged to the community than men who did not receive occupational therapy. As age increased, differences in the probability of community discharge decreased between recipients and nonrecipients of occupational therapy services. Conclusions and Relevance: Our results suggest that patients receiving occupational therapy services in the NCCU may have a lower likelihood of community discharge. However, these findings may result from therapist's consideration of the safest discharge location to ensure the greatest balance between independence and support. What This Article Adds: This study's findings suggest that receipt of occupational therapy in the NCCU is associated with higher likelihood for noncommunity discharge (i.e., to inpatient rehabilitation, skilled nursing, or long-term care). However, activity limitations and comorbidity burden may be greater for recipients of occupational therapy, and these NCCU patients are presumably less prepared for community discharge.


Author(s):  
Kevin Zhai ◽  
Melissa Orr ◽  
Daniel Grits ◽  
Ahmed K. Emara ◽  
Christopher A. Rothfusz ◽  
...  

AbstractDespite its rarity, the risk of mortality following primary elective total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a critical component of surgical decision-making and patient counseling. The purpose of our study was to (1) determine the overall 30-day mortality rate for unilateral primary elective TKA patients, (2) determine the 30-day mortality rates when stratified by age, comorbidities, and preoperative diagnosis, and (3) identify the distribution of (i) patient demographics, (ii) baseline comorbidities, and (iii) preoperative diagnoses between mortality and mortality-free cohorts. A total of 326,157 patients underwent primary elective TKA (2011–2018) were identified through retrospective review of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database. Patients were divided into 30-day mortality (n = 320) and mortality-free (n = 325,837) cohorts. Patient demographics, preoperative comorbidities, and preoperative diagnoses were compared. Age group, American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) score, and modified Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) scores were normalized per 1000 and stratified by preoperative diagnosis. The overall mortality rate was 0.098%. Older age (p < 0.001) and male gender (p < 0.001) were associated with increased mortality. There was no association between mortality and race (p = 0.346) or body mass index (BMI) class (p = 0.722). All reported comorbidities except smoking status were significantly greater in the mortality cohort (p < 0.05). For ASA scores of I, II, III, and IV, the number of deaths per 1,000 were 0.16, 0.47, 1.4, and 4.4, respectively. For CCI scores of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6, mortality rates per 1,000 were 0.76, 2.1, 7.0, 11, 29, and 7.6, respectively. Mortality rates for a preoperative diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA) versus non-OA were, respectively, 0.096% and 0.19% (p < 0.001). Increased age, male gender, increased comorbidity burden, and non-OA preoperative diagnoses are associated with higher rates of 30-day postoperative mortality. There were no significant associations between BMI or race and 30-day mortality. These findings aid in identifying of higher-risk patients, who can then receive appropriate counseling or preoperative interventions to reduce the risk of perioperative mortality.


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