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2021 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Jeffrey G. Driscoll ◽  
Franco M. Alo ◽  
Amélie Paoli ◽  
Robert B. Weladji ◽  
Øystein Holand ◽  

mBio ◽  
2021 ◽  
J. Dylan Shropshire ◽  
Emily Hamant ◽  
Brandon S. Cooper

Wolbachia bacteria are the most common animal-associated endosymbionts due in large part to their manipulation of host reproduction. Many Wolbachia cause cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) that kills uninfected host eggs.

Birds ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (4) ◽  
pp. 445-459
William V. Bleisch ◽  
Paul Buzzard ◽  
Deang Souliya ◽  
Xueyou Li ◽  
Daniel M. Brooks

Using camera-trap data, we describe the ecology and occupancy of several species of gamebirds while assessing associations at Namha National Protected Area (Lao People’s Democratic Republic). We detected three species of Arborophila Partridges, albeit in low numbers. Red Junglefowl Gallus gallus show typical diurnal activity, and we provide a record of a male–female pair commensally associated with a boar Sus scrofa. Silver Pheasants Lophura nycthemera have sex ratios slightly favoring females, and are mostly solitary; we provide novel findings of male age structure and rectrix molt. Gray Peacock Pheasants Polyplectron bicalcaratum sex ratios also favor females; males are recorded displaying as early as late February, while daily activity is somewhat bimodal, and we provide novel findings of male age structure. Analysis of the association between occupancy and 14 environmental covariates indicated that Silver Pheasant and Gray Peacock-Pheasant were associated with rougher terrain, and Red Junglefowl had higher occupancy far from well-groomed trails used for tourism. We discuss our results by comparing and contrasting our findings with other studies, and consider implications for conservation in the region.

2021 ◽  
Jeromy Anglim ◽  
Karlyn Molloy ◽  
Patrick Damien Dunlop ◽  
Simon Albrecht ◽  
Filip Lievens ◽  

Some scholars suggest that organizations could improve their hiring decisions by measuring the personal values of job applicants, arguing that values provide insights into applicants’ cultural fit, retention prospects, and performance outcomes. However, others have expressed concerns about response distortion and faking. The current study provides the first large-scale investigation of the effect of the job applicant context on the psychometric structure and scale means of a self-reported values measure. Participants comprised 7,884 job applicants (41% male; age M = 43.32, SD = 10.76) and a country-, age-, and gender-matched comparison sample of 1,806 non-applicants (41% male; age M = 44.72, SD = 10.97), along with a small repeated-measures, cross-context sample. Respondents completed the 57-item Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ) measuring Schwartz’ universal personal values. Compared to matched non-applicants, applicants reported valuing power and self-direction considerably less, and conformity and universalism considerably more. Applicants also reported valuing security, tradition, and benevolence more than non-applicants, and reported valuing stimulation, hedonism, and achievement less than non-applicants. Despite applicants appearing to embellish the degree to which their values aligned with being responsible and considerate workers, invariance testing suggested that the under- lying structure of values assessment is largely preserved in job applicant contexts.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Jamylle Souza Rodrigues ◽  
Marco Aurélio De Oliveira Góes

Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) represents a challenge that go through the history of mankind. The monitoring in the Primary Health Care (PHC) consists in an important mechanism of accomplishment of the policies on TB, since it provides greater longitudinal care relationship (longitudinality) and closeness to the infected individual. Objective: To analyze TB cases attended by the PHC in Sergipe. Outline: It was performed a retrospective cohort of the TB cases attended by the PHC in Sergipe between 2014 and 2018. Results: 2,172 TB cases attended by the PHC in Sergipe were included, of which 283 (13.0%) abandoned the treatment, 1813 (83.5%) progressed to cure and 76 (3.5%) to death. The factors associated with treatment abandonment were: male, age range of 20 to 29 years, alcoholics, people with diabetes mellitus and persons deprived of liberty. In relation to the mortality, higher rates were found in: male, age range of 70 years and above, illiterate and people with diabetes mellitus. Implications: Conditions of social vulnerability and comorbidities impacted mortality, as well as abandonment of TB treatment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Kenji Ezoe ◽  
Tetsuya Miki ◽  
Tadashi Okimura ◽  
Kazuo Uchiyama ◽  
Akiko Yabuuchi ◽  

Abstract Background Information regarding the influence of cytoplasmic events during fertilisation on the clinical outcome remains limited. The cytoplasmic halo is one of these events. A previous study that used time-lapse technology found an association of the presence and morphokinetics of the cytoplasmic halo with cleavage patterns, development to the blastocyst stage, and the ongoing pregnancy rate after blastocyst transfer. Therefore, the cytoplasmic halo may be a useful predictor of the pregnancy outcome after cleaved embryo transfer. This study evaluated the ability of the cytoplasmic halo to predict a live birth after fresh cleaved embryo transfer on day 2, and sought to identify factors potentially influencing the presence and morphokinetics of the halo. Methods A total of 902 embryos cultured in the EmbryoScope+® time-lapse system and subjected to single fresh cleaved embryo transfer were retrospectively analysed. The presence and duration of a cytoplasmic halo were annotated. The initial positions of the pronuclei were also observed. The correlation between the cytoplasmic halo and live birth was evaluated and the association of the cytoplasmic halo with patient, cycle, and embryonic characteristics was determined. Results Absence of a cytoplasmic halo was associated with a significant decrease in the likelihood of a live birth after fresh cleaved embryo transfer. Prolongation of the halo, especially the duration of central repositioning of cytoplasmic granules, had an adverse impact on the live birth rate. The characteristics of the cytoplasmic halo were not affected by the ovarian stimulation method used, female age, the serum steroid hormone level on the day of trigger, or semen quality. However, the cytoplasmic halo was significantly affected by male age, oocyte diameter, and the initial position of the male pronucleus. Conclusions Absence or prolongation of the cytoplasmic halo was negatively correlated with the live birth rate after fresh cleaved embryo transfer. The characteristics of the cytoplasmic halo were strongly associated with oocyte diameter, male age, and the initial position of the male pronucleus. These findings indicate that the characteristics of the cytoplasmic halo can be used to select more competent embryos for transfer at the cleavage stage.

Paraskevi Vogiatzi ◽  
Abraham Pouliakis ◽  
Maria Sakellariou ◽  
Aikaterini Athanasiou ◽  
Adamantios Athanasiou ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Christoph Berger ◽  
Alexander Dück ◽  
Felicitas Perin ◽  
Katharina Wunsch ◽  
Johannes Buchmann ◽  

Objective: Disturbed regulation of vigilance in the wake state seems to play a key role in the development of mental disorders. It is assumed that hyperactivity in adult ADHD is an attempt to increase a general low vigilance level via external stimulation in order to avoid drowsiness. For depression, the avoidance of stimulation is interpreted as a reaction to a tonic increased vigilance state. Although ADHD is assumed to start during childhood, this vigilance model has been barely tested with children diagnosed for ADHD so far.Methods: Resting-state EEG (8 min) measures from two groups of children diagnosed with either ADHD [N = 76 (16 female, 60 male), age: (mean/SD) 118/33 months] or depression [N = 94 (73 female, 21 male), age: 184/23 months] were analyzed. Using the VIGALL toolbox, EEG patterns of vigilance level, and regulation were derived and compared between both groups. In correlation analysis, the relations between vigilance measures, attentional test performance (alertness and inhibition), and mental health symptoms were analyzed.Results: Children with ADHD differed from children with most prominent depressive symptoms in brain arousal regulation and level, but EEG vigilance was not related to behavior problems and not related to the attentional test performance. Brain arousal was dependent on the age of the participant in the whole sample; younger children showed lower vigilance stages than teenagers; this effect was not present when analyzed separately for each diagnostic group. EEG assessment time and received medication had no effect on the EEG vigilance.Discussion: Although based on a small sample, this explorative research revealed that EEG vigilance level is different between children with ADHD and with depression. Moreover, even the standard procedure of the clinical routine EEG (resting state) can be used to differentiate brain arousal states between participants with ADHD and depression. Because routine EEG is not specialized to vigilance assessment, it may not be sufficiently sensitive to find vigilance–symptomatology associations. Further research should address developmental changes in EEG measurements in children and use bigger samples of participants within the same age range.

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