AbstractAlcohol measurement delivered by health care providers in primary health care settings is an efficacious and cost-effective intervention to reduce alcohol consumption among patients. However, this intervention is not yet routinely implemented in practice. Community support has been recommended as a strategy to stimulate the delivery of alcohol measurement by health care providers, yet evidence on the effectiveness of community support in this regard is scarce. The current study used a pre-post quasi-experimental design in order to investigate the effect of community support in three Latin American municipalities in Colombia, Mexico, and Peru on health care providers’ rates of measuring alcohol consumption in their patients. The analysis is based on the first 5 months of implementation. Moreover, the study explored possible mechanisms underlying the effects of community support, through health care providers’ awareness of support, as well as their attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and subsequent intention toward delivering the intervention. An ANOVA test indicated that community support had a significant effect on health care providers’ rates of measuring alcohol consumption in their patients (F (1, 259) = 4.56, p = 0.034, ηp2 = 0.018). Moreover, a path analysis showed that community support had a significant indirect positive effect on providers’ self-efficacy to deliver the intervention (b = 0.07, p = 0.008), which was mediated through awareness of support. Specifically, provision of community support resulted in a higher awareness of support among health care providers (b = 0.31, p < 0.001), which then led to higher self-efficacy to deliver brief alcohol advice (b = 0.23, p = 0.010). Results indicate that adoption of an alcohol measurement intervention by health care providers may be aided by community support, by directly impacting the rates of alcohol measurement sessions, and by increasing providers’ self-efficacy to deliver this intervention, through increased awareness of support. Trial Registration ID: NCT03524599; Registered 15 May 2018; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03524599
This manuscript about myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) based on published studies aims to enhance the awareness of primary health workers about this potentially serious condition that often poses diagnostic challenges. Two Brazilian, one Chilean, and one Turkish studies are commented on, and the role of imaging evaluations to establish the diagnosis is emphasized.
To identify misbeliefs about the origin and meaning of non-specific chronic low back pain and to examine attitudes towards treatment by primary health care providers.
Generic qualitative study.
Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted between October and November 2016 with physicians and nurses from primary health care centres in Lleida. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using inductive thematic analysis via Atlas.ti-8 software.
Five themes were identified: i. beliefs about the origin and meaning of chronic low back pain, ii. psychosocial aspects of pain modulators, iii. Therapeutic exercise as a treatment for chronic low back pain, iv. biomedical attitudes of primary health care providers, and v. difficulties in the clinical approach to chronic low back pain.
Primary health care providers have a unifactorial view of chronic low back pain and base their approach on the biomedical model. Professionals attribute chronic low back pain to structural alterations in the lumbar spine while psychosocial factors are only recognized as pain modulators. For professionals, therapeutic exercise represents a possible solution to chronic low back pain; however, they still do not prescribe it and continue to educate on postural hygiene and recommend limiting physical and/or occupational activities, as opposed to clinical practice guidelines. These findings suggest that to improve the adherence of primary health care providers to the biopsychosocial model, it may be necessary first to modify their misbeliefs about non-specific chronic low back pain by increasing their knowledge on pain neurophysiology.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02962817. Date of registration: 11/11/2016.
The current study assessed pregnant women’s satisfaction with antenatal care (ANC) services at primary health care centers (PHCs) in Riyadh Cluster One. The study was conducted at 11 PHCs where the ANC initiative has been implemented. A total of 646 pregnant women were enrolled. A questionnaire was completed by participants to measure the level of satisfaction with the provided services, care, and consultation. Subsequently, the data were analyzed to determine the significant differences and conduct regression analysis. The overall satisfaction with initial triage assessment, provided services, consultation, and examination was 93.7%, 87.8%, 71.8%, and 53.9%, respectively. Regarding ANC services, education was the only statistically significant variable that influenced patient satisfaction (p < 0.05). In contrast, satisfaction with the provided care was significantly related to all the variables studied. For consultation, education (p < 0.001) and monthly income (p < 0.05) were the statistically significant role players. In the regression analysis, secondary education was statistically significantly related to the provided services, consultation, and examination. Despite the satisfactory level of ANC at the selected PHCs, higher patient satisfaction could be achieved in the future by improving the consultation and examination practices. Overall satisfaction with the health care workers at PHCs is high. Incorporating implied ameliorations would enhance the quality of services and patient satisfaction.
Background: Accepting community health nursing in the primary care system of each country and focusing on creating a position for community health nurses is of significant importance. The aim of this study was to examine the stakeholders' perception of the requirements for establishing a position for community health nursing in the Iranian primary health care system.Methods: This qualitative study was done using 24 semi-structured interviews conducted from May 2020 to February 2021 in Iran. The participants were selected through purposive sampling and consisted of nursing policy makers, the policy makers of the Health Deputy of Ministry of Health, the managers and the authorities of universities of medical sciences all across the country, community health nursing faculty members, and community health nurses working in health care centers. After recording and transcribing the data, data analysis was performed in MAXQDA10 software, using Elo and Kyngas's directed content analysis approach and based on WHO's community health nursing role enhancement model. The statements for each main category were summarized in SWOT classification. To examine the trustworthiness of the data, Lincoln & Guba's criteria were used.Results: By analyzing the interviews 6 main categories identified consist of creating a transparent framework for community health nursing practice, enhancing community health nursing education and training for practice in the primary health care system and community settings, seeking support, strengthening the cooperation and engagement among the key stakeholders of the primary health care system, changing the policies and the structure of the health system, and focusing on the deficiencies of the health system. Each main categories including the subcategories strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT).Conclusions: Based on the participants' opinions, focusing on the aforementioned dimensions is one of the requirements of developing a position for community health nursing within the Iranian PHC system. It seems that correct and proper implementation of these strategies in regard with the cultural context of society can help policymakers manage challenges that prevent the performance of community health nursing in the health system.
The objective: to evaluate effectiveness of mass screening for tuberculosis infection in children aged 1 to 7 years in different periods – before and after the use of tuberculosis recombinant allergen skin test (TRA) in primary health care as an additional diagnostic method.Subjects and Methods. The study was designed as continuous observational prospective-retrospective study. Two different periods were assessed: the first one was 2014-2016 when screening for tuberculosis infection was performed in all children from 1 to 17 years (inclusive) using Mantoux test with 2 TU PPD-L in pediatric primary health care, and then children suspected to have a positive reaction were referred to TB dispensary where they were examined with a skin test with TRA if necessary. The second period was from 2018 to 2020 when children of 1-7 years old were given Mantoux test and if tuberculosis infection was suspected, a skin test with TRA was done both in primary health care network and TB units. In the first 3 years, 1,864,137 children were examined and in the second 3 years, 2,078,800 children from 1 to 7 years old were examined.Results. Among children of 1-7 years old who were screened by two stages (initial Mantoux test, and then in those who had a positive reaction, the TRA test was used), only 10-12% of those referred to a phthisiologist were subject to dispensary follow-up. Thus, with the implementation of the new edict on screening for tuberculosis infection in children with two tests, this proportion has not changed compared to previous years, when screening was carried out only with one Mantoux test. The reason why almost 90% of the children who were referred to TB Dispensary were not subject to dispensary follow-up is the following: children who have had previous conversion of tuberculin tests, along with everyone else are again screened with Mantoux test despite being previously followed up by TB dispensary due to the primary infection.Recommendations:Currently, there is no division of Group VI into Subgroups A, B, C in the dispensary follow up grouping. Why should conversion of Mantoux test reaction from negative into positive not be considered an infection, and the increase in the reaction must be at least 6 mm.Since Order No. 124n of the Russian Ministry of Health allows testing with TRA in the primary health care in case of suspected infection, it is advisable to refer those who have already had this test to a phthisiologist.A child with conversion of Mantoux test should not be re-screened with Mantoux test but the TRA test should be used. If a positive reaction to the TRA test occurs for the first time, it should be considered as conversion of this test, and in this case the child should be examined by computed tomography (CT), and preventive therapy should be prescribed. If in subsequent years the TRA reaction increases by at least 6 mm after previous preventive therapy, the child should be re-referred for CT to rule out the development of active tuberculosis.
Background: There has been a rapid increase in morbidity and mortality arising from non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) program has established a chronic disease management program in collaboration with the Ministry of Health (MoH) in Kenya at over 150 health facilities in western Kenya. The primary health integrated care for chronic (PIC4C) disease project seeks to deliver preventive, promotive, and curative care for diabetes, hypertension, cervical and breast cancers at the primary health care level. We apply the RE-AIM framework to conduct a process evaluation of the integrated PIC4C model. This paper describes the protocol we are using in the PIC4C process evaluation planning and activities.Methods and Analysis: This evaluation utilizes clinic reports as well as primary data collected in two waves. Using mixed methods (secondary data, observation, semi-structured interviews, and focus group discussions), the process evaluation assesses the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance of the PIC4C model in Busia and Trans Nzoia Kenya. The evaluation captures the PIC4C process, experiences of implementers and users, and the wishes of those using the PIC4C services. We will analyse our data across the RE-AIM dimensions using descriptive statistics and two-sample t-test to compare the mean scores for baseline and end line. Qualitative data will be analyzed thematically.Discussion: The process evaluation of the PIC4C model in Kenya allows implementers and users to reflect and question its implementation, uptake and maintenance. Our experiences thus far suggest practicable strategies to facilitate primary health care can benefit extensively from deliberate process evaluation of the programs undertaken. Furthermore, integrating the RE-AIM framework in the process evaluation of health programs is valuable due to its pragmatic and reporting usefulness.