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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 15-20
Author(s):  
N. H. Rachmani ◽  
A. Apriantini ◽  
L. Cyrilla E. N. S. D

During the COVID-19 pandemic, people are started to consume foods that are highly nutritious to increased their immunity, one of them is by consuming milk and its processed products like kefir, yogurt. Milk is one of the foods favored by the community because it is rich in health benefits. The demand for this product is also increased every year. Consumer behavior was always changing along with consumer needs that follow the conditions and developments of the times. Consumers will choose products with good quality and ful fill what their needs, as well as dairy products. This study aims to analyze consumer decisions in consuming milk and its processed products in the Bogor city area during the covid 19 pandemic. The research was carried out with the stages of determining respondents, identify factors that influence consumer behavior, collecting and analyzing data. Respondents are people who live in Bogor City with an age range of 20 to 30 years purposively as many as 108 respondents. Data processing and analysis was carried out using the Spearman rank correlation test to determine the relationship between knowledge and situational variables on the decision to consume milk and its processed products. The results showed that the level of knowledge and situational had a significant and direct relationship with consumer decisions (P<0.01). This shows that the higher level of consumer knowledge of products with supportive conditions, the consumer’s decision to consume milk and its processed products is also getting stronger.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 152-173
Author(s):  
Sarat Kumar Doley

Second language (L2) attitude and motivation-related studies focusing on differences caused by age have mostly highlighted the temporal dimension of L2 attitude and motivation. Age-related L2 motivation studies have also been gainfully employed at comparisons between L2 learners of different age groups recruited from different L2 learning environments. Such studies have not, however, attempted an analysis of the L2 attitudinal and motivational differences that may exist among L2 learners within a closer age range, e.g., 18 to 25 years. This article presents the findings of an L2 attitude and motivation survey, using a modified version of Dӧrnyei et al. (2006) and Ryan (2005), conducted among secondary, undergraduate, and postgraduate English as a second language (ESL) learners (N210) in India. It primarily presents a comparative analysis of the L2 attitudinal and motivational constructs of integrativeness, instrumentality, cultural interest, linguistic self-confidence, and L2 anxiety attested in the sample. Additionally, it offers a description of the correlation between the five L2 attitudinal and motivational constructs concerning the different ESL groups. As the ESL learners across the academic levels demonstrated ESL motivation more on the side of instrumentality, they also reported linguistic self-confidence more in the familiar environment of an L2 classroom than outside of it. Since better motivational strategies enhance learner dedication to the learning of a certain L2, an elaborated understanding of the specific differences in L2 attitude and motivation within this important age range should help design more useful and effective L2 pedagogical methods.


2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 89-91
Author(s):  
Kamar Jahan ◽  
Binod Kumar Mahaseth

Introduction: Foetal death at any stage of pregnancy is not just a tragic event but also a more traumatic for the mental well-being of a mother. It is one of the most wrenching events in the field of obstetrics. Aims: The study was done to determine the probable risk factors of intrauterine foetal death and role of antenatal care in its prevention. Methods: The study was conducted  in Obstetrics and Gynecology department at Nepalgunj Medical college from July 2018 to July 2020 .Inclusion criteria were  intrauterine fetal death  of >28 weeks of gestation and baby weighing  1000 grams or more . An exclusion criterion was molar pregnancy. Results: There were 115(3.52%) intrauterine fetal death during the study period, making it 35 per 1000 cases. In 17(14.78%) the cause of intrauterine fetal death was not known. The other common associated risk factors were prematurity in 14(12.17%) and hypertension in 13(11.30%). Similarly anemia and antepartum hemorrhage were seen in 13(11.30%) each. 11(9.56%) patients had oligohydramnios. Mal presentation was found in 8(6.95%) patients while polyhydromnios in 6(5.21%).The commonest age range in whom intrauterine fetal death was seen was 20-30 (73.90%). 28 (24.34%) patients were at preterm pregnancy ranging between 28-30 weeks whereas 17(14.78) intrauterine fetal death occured at  32-34 weeks. 77 foetuses were preterm and their birth weight was between 1 - 1.5 kg  with the mean wt of  1175.73 gms. Conclusion: Intrauterine fetal death is still common inspite of the improving awareness in importance of regular antenatal care. In majority, the cause of intrauterine fetal death is still unknown. However, where the cause was known prematurity was the commonest.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Anatoly Korotkov ◽  
Mark J. Luinenburg ◽  
Alessia Romagnolo ◽  
Till S. Zimmer ◽  
Jackelien van Scheppingen ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The genetic disorder tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is frequently accompanied by the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, with varying degrees of impairment. These co-morbidities in TSC have been linked to the structural brain abnormalities, such as cortical tubers, and recurrent epileptic seizures (in 70–80% cases). Previous transcriptomic analysis of cortical tubers revealed dysregulation of genes involved in cell adhesion in the brain, which may be associated with the neurodevelopmental deficits in TSC. In this study we aimed to investigate the expression of one of these genes – cell-adhesion molecule contactin-3. Methods Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction for the contactin-3 gene (CNTN3) was performed in resected cortical tubers from TSC patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (n = 35, age range: 1–48 years) and compared to autopsy-derived cortical control tissue (n = 27, age range: 0–44 years), as well as by western blot analysis of contactin-3 (n = 7 vs n = 7, age range: 0–3 years for both TSC and controls) and immunohistochemistry (n = 5 TSC vs n = 4 controls). The expression of contactin-3 was further analyzed in fetal and postnatal control tissue by western blotting and in-situ hybridization, as well as in the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line differentiation model in vitro. Results CNTN3 gene expression was lower in cortical tubers from patients across a wide range of ages (fold change = − 0.5, p < 0.001) as compared to controls. Contactin-3 protein expression was lower in the age range of 0–3 years old (fold change = − 3.8, p < 0.001) as compared to the age-matched controls. In control brain tissue, contactin-3 gene and protein expression could be detected during fetal development, peaked around birth and during infancy and declined in the adult brain. CNTN3 expression was induced in the differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells in vitro (fold change = 6.2, p < 0.01). Conclusions Our data show a lower expression of contactin-3 in cortical tubers of TSC patients during early postnatal period as compared to controls, which may affect normal brain development and might contribute to neuropsychiatric co-morbidities observed in patients with TSC.


2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 663-666
Author(s):  
Neha Singh Jat ◽  
Sumaiya Hasan ◽  
Dheerendra Singh ◽  
Vivek Paul Buddhe

To study the keratometry of Indian pediatric eyes, the effect of speculum on keratometry reading, the concordance of hand held and automated keratometry and the effect of unilateral and bilateral cataract on keratometry and IOL power calculation. This was conducted as a cross- sectional observational study on 101 eyes of children in the age range of 41 post-conceptional weeks to 144 months. All cooperative patients were subject to automated keratometry followed by keratometry using hand held keratometer with and without speculum. Hand held keratometer with and without speculum documented significantly increased average K as well as astigmatism and decreased calculated IOL power when compared to automated keratometry (p&#60;0.01). No significant difference in K readings was observed between unilateral and bilateral cataracts and among males and females (p&#62;0.05). As the age increased, astigmatism increased significantly (R=0.07; p=0.007) whereas no such correlation was observed for keratometry (p&#62;0.05). Hand held keratometry offers the convenience of obtaining accurate keratometry, astigmatism and IOL power measurements in children.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 180-184
Author(s):  
SadiqaliAbbasali Syed

Background: Aim: To assess anatomical variations of profundafemoris artery in Indian population.Methods:45 embalmed lower extremities adult human cadavers age range of 30–65 years were recruited for the study. The femoral triangles were dissected with proper care to identify the profundafemoris and circumflex femoral arteries. Their source of origin, position, and distance were noted with the mid-inguinal point (MIP) as a reference point.Results:Side of profundafemoris artery (PFA) was postero- lateral in 60%, posterior in 30%, lateral in 5% and absent in 5%. Medial circumflex femoral artery (MCFA) had 65%, 15%, 12% and 8% and lateral circumflex femoral artery (LCFA) had 80%, 15%, 5% and 0% respectively. Origin of profundafemoris artery (PFA) was FA in 90% and common trunk with medial circumflex femoral artery in 10%. Origin of Medial circumflex femoral artery (MCFA) was FA in 55%, PFA in 40% and FA with common trunk with MCFA in 5%. Origin of lateral circumflex femoral artery (LCFA) was femoral artery in 70%, PFA in 20% and FA with common trunk with PFA in 10%. A significant difference was observed (P< 0.05).Conclusions:A thorough knowledge of variation of profunda femoral artery is of great importance and to avoid complications.


Author(s):  
Massimo Corsalini ◽  
Saverio Capodiferro ◽  
Fabio dell’Olio ◽  
Giovanni Albanese ◽  
Nicola Quaranta ◽  
...  

Background: Whiplash is a consequence of traumatic injuries, mostly related to road accidents, with variable clinical manifestations, also known as Whiplash Associated Disorders, such as neck, head and temporo-cranio-mandibular pain. Methods: The current study aims to evaluate the onset and evolution of temporomandibular joint pain in people with whiplash in a study group treated with the use of Zimmer Collars (adjustable rigid cervical collars for neck immobilization), as compared to a control group. This prospective study included 31 patients followed by the Dental Prosthesis Department of the University of Bari “Aldo Moro”: 20 patients with whiplash (age range: 20–39 years) treated with Zimmer collars and 11 patients with whiplash (age range: 20–33 years) who were not. Immediately after the whiplash occurred, a visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to describe the intensity of pain and to complete the chart of the European Academy of Craniomandibular Disorders. Five out of twenty patients, already treated with a Zimmer collar, wore an occlusal splint as well because of persistent pain reported at the 28-day and 60-day follow-up and were supported by pharmacological therapy with analgesics (paracetamol) and muscle relaxants (thiocolchicoside). Results: During the last follow-up (at six months), three out of five patients displayed a residual VAS score of 3, 4, and 5, respectively, while the remaining two displayed a VAS of 0. In the control group, four out of eleven patients needed to wear an occlusal splint but without muscle relaxants and analgesics pharmacological therapy; these four corresponded to the patients showing a residual painful symptomatology, with VAS reaching value of 2, and also were the oldest patients of the group. Data regarding VAS values and Zimmer collar use, both at the first visit and six months later, were statistically analyzed. Conclusion: Our prospective study highlights how whiplash-associated acute disorders are often self-limiting over a period of few months, thus reducing the possibility of symptom chronicity; the latter seems to be strictly related to lesion severity, pre-existence of a craniomandibular dysfunction and patient age, but appears to be independent from Zimmer collar use, as statistically confirmed.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Andreas Hinz ◽  
Michael Friedrich ◽  
Tobias Luck ◽  
Steffi G. Riedel-Heller ◽  
Anja Mehnert-Theuerkauf ◽  
...  

Background: Multiple studies have shown that people who have experienced a serious health problem such as an injury tend to overrate the quality of health they had before that event. The main objective of this study was to test whether the phenomenon of respondents overrating their past health can also be observed in people from the general population. A second aim was to test whether habitual optimism is indeed focused on events in the future.Method: A representatively selected community sample from Leipzig, Germany (n = 2282, age range: 40–75 years) was examined. Respondents were asked to assess their current health, their past health (5 years before), and their expected future health (in 5 years) on a 0–100 scale. In addition, the study participants completed several questionnaires on specific aspects of physical and mental health.Results: Respondents of all age groups assessed their health as having been better in the past than it was at present. Moreover, they also assessed their earlier state of health more positively than people 5 years younger did their current state. Habitual optimism was associated with respondents having more positive expectations of how healthy they will be in 5 years time (r = 0.37), but the correlation with their assessments of their current health was nearly as high (r = 0.36).Conclusion: Highly positive scores of retrospectively assessed health among people who have experienced a health problem cannot totally be accounted for by a response to that health problem.


Author(s):  
Sangh Mittra ◽  
Hanuman Prasad Prajapati ◽  
Raj Kumar

Abstract Background The identification of neurosurgical causes of craniomegaly and early institution of therapy requires for better clinical and functional outcomes. Aims and Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the neurosurgical causes, managements, and outcomes of craniomegaly in neonate and infants. Materials and Methods The cases with a history of head enlargement from neonatal period were included in this study. Their causes, managements, and outcomes were recorded retrospectively during the period of January 2010 to February 2013, in neurosurgery department at SGPGIMS Lucknow, and June 2018 to June 2020, at UPUMS, Saifai, Etawah, UP, India. Results Out of 41 cases, there were 30 (73.14%) cases of hydrocephalus, 4 (9.76%) Dandy-Walker malformation, 2 (4.88%) subdural collection, 2 (4.88%) arachnoid cyst, 1 (2.44%) craniosynostosis, and 2 (4.88%) with tubercular meningitis. The age range of our cases was 18 to 178 days and the mean age was 102.54 ± 50.73. Preoperative head circumference range was 39 to 62 cm (mean: 55.27 ± 6.58cm). Majority of the cases (n = 32, 78.05%) were managed with ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgeries. Out of 41 cases, 33(80.49%) had improved outcomes, 7 (17.07%) stabilized, and mortality occurred in 1 (2.44%) case. Postoperatively, there was improvement in the head circumference (range: 39–60 cm and mean: 46.15 ± 5.83 cm) on 6 to 24 months (mean: 17.85 ± 5.18 months) of follow-up. Conclusion Hydrocephalus was the commonest neurosurgical cause of head enlargement in neonate and infants. Shunt surgery was the most common form of management of these cases. Early detection, institution of therapy, and periodic follow-up program for diagnosing and treating complications were the key to successful outcomes in these patients.


2022 ◽  
pp. 146531252110680
Author(s):  
Yana Sabbagh ◽  
Benjamin RK Lewis ◽  
Stephen M Chadwick ◽  
Elham S Abu Alhaija

Objective: To understand and compare the perceived impact and ongoing effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on orthodontic clinical services in the UK. Design: Descriptive cross-sectional survey. Setting: Online electronic questionnaire. Participants: Members of the British Orthodontic Society (BOS). Methods: Electronic questionnaires were circulated between March and June 2021. The UK survey was distributed via emails from the BOS, Orthodontic Managed Clinical Networks and WhatsApp groups. Results: A total of 560 unique responses were received. There were more respondents who were aged over 50 years (52%) then respondents who were aged below 50 years (48%) with the median age range being 50–54 years (20%). The main causes of disruption to clinical practice were felt to be national restrictions (85%), increased cross-infection measures (84%), social distancing (80%) and professional guidance (80%). Respondents felt more negatively in their opinions regarding dentistry’s preparedness for the pandemic (5%) and how dentistry coped in the crisis (35%), when compared to orthodontic services specifically (8% and 58%, respectively). The respondents were not confident about the potential beneficial effects of a vaccination programme on orthodontic clinical service provision (21%). Telephone consultations (84%) and video consultations (61%) were the main adaptations used by the respondents during the pandemic. Conclusions: Respondents felt that COVID-19 will have long-term societal, clinical and professional implications. The majority of our respondents supported the vaccination and weekly testing of the orthodontic team. Respondents felt that during the pandemic there had been a deterioration in care provision and were not optimistic about a vaccination programme restoring services to pre-pandemic levels of activity. During the pandemic, patients in active orthodontic treatment have been prioritised but at the expense of new and review patients, and as services recover respondents were concerned about the difficulty of arranging dental extractions.


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