repeated measures
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2022 ◽  
Vol 294 ◽  
pp. 118631
M.L. Bergmann ◽  
Z.J. Andersen ◽  
H. Amini ◽  
J. Khan ◽  
Y.H. Lim ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Maik Sahm ◽  
Clara Danzer ◽  
Alexis Leonhard Grimm ◽  
Christian Herrmann ◽  
Rene Mantke

Background and AimsPublished studies repeatedly demonstrate an advantage of three-dimensional (3D) laparoscopic surgery over two-dimensional (2D) systems but with quite heterogeneous results. This raises the question whether clinics must replace 2D technologies to ensure effective training of future surgeons.MethodsWe recruited 45 students with no experience in laparoscopic surgery and comparable characteristics in terms of vision and frequency of video game usage. The students were randomly allocated to 3D (n = 23) or 2D (n = 22) groups and performed 10 runs of a laparoscopic “peg transfer” task in the Luebeck Toolbox. A repeated-measures ANOVA for operation times and a generalized linear mixed model for error rates were calculated. The main effects of laparoscopic condition and run, as well as the interaction term between the two, were examined.ResultsNo statistically significant differences in operation times and error rates were observed between 2D and 3D groups (p = 0.10 and p = 0.72, respectively). The learning curve showed a significant reduction in operation time and error rates (both p's < 0.001). No significant interactions between group and run were detected (operation time: p = 0.342, error rates: p = 0.83). With respect to both endpoints studied, the learning curves reached their plateau at the 7th run.ConclusionThe result of our study with laparoscopic novices revealed no significant difference between 2D and 3D technology with respect to performance time and the error rate in a simple standardized test. In the future, surgeons may thus still be trained in both techniques.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Joanne DiFrancisco-Donoghue ◽  
Thomas Chan ◽  
Alexandra S. Jensen ◽  
James E. B. Docherty ◽  
Rebecca Grohman ◽  

Abstract Context Muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) can occur following intense exercise. Various modalities have been studied to improve blood lactate accumulation, which is a primary reason for DOMS. It has been well established that active recovery facilitates blood lactate removal more rapidly that passive recovery due to the pumping action of the muscle. The pedal pump is a manual lymphatic technique used in osteopathic manipulative medicine to increase lymphatic drainage throughout the body. Pedal pump has been shown to increase lymphatic flow and improve immunity. This may improve circulation and improve clearance of metabolites post-exercise. Objective This study compared the use of pedal pump lymphatic technique to passive supine recovery following maximal exercise. Methods 17 subjects (male n = 10, age 23 ± 3.01; female n = 7, age 24 ± 1.8), performed a maximal volume O2 test (VO2 max) using a Bruce protocol, followed by a recovery protocol using either pedal pump technique or supine passive rest for 10 min, followed by sitting for 10 min. Outcome measures included blood lactate concentration (BL), heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and VO2. Subjects returned on another day to repeat the VO2 max test to perform the other recovery protocol. All outcomes were measured at rest, within 1- minute post-peak exercise, and at minutes 4, 7, 10 and 20 of the recovery protocols. A 2 × 6 repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare outcome measures (p ≤ 0.05). Results No significant differences were found in VO2, HR, or SBP between any of the recovery protocols. There was no significant difference in BL concentrations for recovery at minutes 4, 7, or 10 (p > 0.05). However, the pedal pump recovery displayed significantly lower BL concentrations at minute 20 of recovery (p = 0.04). Conclusion The pedal pump significantly decreased blood lactate concentrations following intense exercise at recovery minute 20. The use of manual lymphatic techniques in exercise recovery should be investigated further.

Gillian M. Maher ◽  
Ali S. Khashan ◽  
Fergus P. McCarthy

Abstract Purpose To examine the association between mode of delivery (in particular caesarean section) and behavioural outcomes in offspring at six time-points between age 3 and 17 years. Methods Similar to previous work examining the association between mode of delivery and behavioural outcomes in offspring at age 7, we used maternal-reported data from the Millennium Cohort Study. Data on mode of delivery were collected when children were 9 months and categorised as spontaneous vaginal delivery, assisted vaginal delivery, induced vaginal delivery, emergency caesarean section, planned caesarean section and caesarean section after induction of labor. Data on behavioural outcomes were collected at ages 3, 5, 7, 11, 14 and 17 years using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Crude and adjusted logistic regression examined mode of delivery–behavioural difficulties relationship, using validated SDQ cut-off points (total SDQ ≥ 17, emotional ≥ 5, conduct ≥ 4, hyperactivity ≥ 7, peer problems ≥ 4 and prosocial behaviour ≤ 4). Multilevel models with linear splines examined the association between mode of delivery and repeated measures of SDQ. Results There were 18,213 singleton mother–child pairs included at baseline, 13,600 at age 3; 13,831 at age 5; 12,687 at age 7; 11,055 at age 11; 10,745 at age 14 and 8839 at age 17. Adjusted logistic regression suggested few associations between mode of delivery and behavioural outcomes at ages 3, 5, 11, 14 and 17 years using validated SDQ cut-off points. After correction for multiple testing, only the protective association between planned caesarean section-Conduct difficulties at age 5 years (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.46, 0.85) and positive association between caesarean section after induction-Emotional difficulties at age 11 years (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.19, 2.07) remained statistically significant. Multilevel modelling suggested mean SDQ scores were similar in each mode of delivery group at each time point. Conclusions Results of this study indicate that mode of delivery is unlikely to have a major impact on behavioural outcomes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (3) ◽  
Romina Kalantari ◽  
Fatihe Kermansaravi ◽  
Fariba Yaghoubinia

Background: The acute nature and complications of COVID-19, including fatigue and dyspnea, reduce the ability of the affected individuals to play individual and social roles and perform activities of daily living, and have adverse effects on the life quality and economic status of patients. Conducting pre-discharge rehabilitation programs following a home-based approach can be effective in reducing fatigue and dyspnea and improving the activities of daily living of COVID-19 patients. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effect of home-based pulmonary rehabilitation on fatigue, dyspnea, and activities of daily living of COVID-19 patients in the teaching hospitals of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences in 2020. Methods: The quasi-experimental study enrolled 60 patients with COVID-19 respiratory symptoms admitted to the COVID-19 intensive care units of teaching hospitals affiliated with Zahedan University of Medical Sciences in 2020. The patients who met the inclusion criteria were selected using convenience sampling and randomly divided into intervention and control groups with color cards. The instruments used to collect the data were the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), the Borg Dyspnea Scale, and the Barthel Index completed by the participants before, two weeks, and two months after the intervention. The rehabilitation training was provided to the patient and the primary caregiver in the intervention group in three 45-min sessions individually and using training videos during the hospital stay. After discharge, the patients were followed up in person or by phone for eight weeks to ensure the effectiveness of the rehabilitation program. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS-22 software through repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), independent samples t-test, and chi-square test at a significance level of 0.05 (P < 0.05). Results: The repeated measures ANOVA showed that changes in the fatigue and dyspnea scores were significant over time (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the intervention effect was significant (P = 0.04), and more remarkable changes were observed in the intervention group than in the control group. Given the significance of the group-time interactive effect on the two given variables, the comparisons were made point by point and with Bonferroni correction again by time and group. There were significant differences in the mean fatigue scores in the second (P = 0.03) and third (P < 0.001) stages and the mean dyspnea scores (P < 0.001) between the two groups. The mean scores of activities of daily living two weeks and two months after the intervention were significantly different between the two groups, with higher scores in the intervention group than in the control group (P = 0.01). The repeated measures ANOVA confirmed a statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of the effect of time (P < 0.001) and group (P = 0.03) on the patients’ activities of daily living. Conclusions: The study showed that home-based pulmonary rehabilitation measures were effective on fatigue, dyspnea, and activities of daily living of COVID-19 patients. Thus, this intervention approach by nurses for family participation can be practical for treating acute and chronic respiratory diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 76-81
Rameshwar Sharan Gupta ◽  
Manish Khanna

Recent developments in cellular and molecular biology have emerged as a potent tool in the management of orthopaedic illnesses and injuries. Upon binding to the target cell receptor, the growth factor from platelets triggers the activation of an intracellular signal transduction system, which results in a biological response that is essential for chemotaxis, cell proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and safety of autologous platelet-rich plasma injection in tennis elbow and plantar fasciitis. We conducted a prospective study with patients who were suffering from plantar fasciitis (n=37) or tennis elbow (n=23) and were given with autologous platelet-rich plasma injection. A short term follow up of all these cases were done at regular intervals for 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The clinical outcomes were analyzed with severity of pain and movements of the pathological part. The functional outcomes were analyzed with VAS and AOFAS scoring for plantar fasciitis and VAS and Mayo’s elbow scoring for tennis elbow. All these patients were statistically analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA test. Our investigation found a statistically significant difference between pre-procedural and post-procedural scores in both the subjective (VAS) and functional (AOFAS and Mayo elbow score) grading systems used in this study. Patients who received an autologous platelet-rich plasma injection experienced a statistically significant (p &#60;0.05) improvement in their ability to combat both of the musculoskeletal illnesses studied. Autologous platelet-rich plasma acts as a promising efficacious biological therapeutic agent for use in musculoskeletal disorders such as plantar fasciitis and tennis elbow without major complications upon its usage.

B M Lozinski ◽  
B Frederick ◽  
Y Li ◽  
M Saqui-Salces ◽  
G C Shurson ◽  

Abstract An experiment was conducted to determine effects of providing drinking water of differing qualities on growth performance and health of nursery pigs. Weanling pigs (n = 450; 150 pigs/group; 10 pigs/pen) were assigned randomly to one of three experimental groups consisting of three water sources of varying quality: 1) Water source A containing 1,410 ppm hardness (CaCO3 equivalent), 1,120 ppm sulfates, and 1,500 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS); 2) Water source B containing 909 ppm hardness (CaCO3 equivalent), 617 ppm sulfates, and 1,050 ppm TDS; and 3) Water source C containing 235 ppm hardness (CaCO3 equivalent), 2 ppm sulfates, and 348 ppm TDS. Pigs were provided ad libitum access to their respective water sources for the duration of the study which began at weaning (21 d of age) and ended 40 d later (61 d of age). Individual pig weights were recorded weekly along with feed intake on a pen basis. Occurrences of morbidity and mortality were recorded daily. Subjective fecal scores were assigned on a pen basis and blood samples were used to evaluate blood chemistry, cytokine concentrations, and phagocytic activity. A differential sugar absorption test was used to assess intestinal permeability. Fecal grab samples were used to establish diet digestibility, and drinking behavior was video-recorded to assess pigs’ acceptance of water sources provided. The statistical model considered fixed effects of water source, room, and their interaction with the random effect of pen. A repeated measures analysis was conducted to determine effects of water quality over time. There were no differences (P &gt; 0.440) among water sources in average daily gain (A, 0.46 kg/d; B, 0.46 kg/d; C, 0.47 kg/d) or average daily feed intake (A, 0.68 kg/d; B, 0.69 kg/d; C, 0.71 kg/d). Overall mortality of pigs was 0.44% and did not differ across the three water sources. There were no differences in apparent total tract digestibility of the diet, intestinal permeability, immune parameters, or blood chemistry attributable to quality of water consumed by pigs. Pigs did not show an aversion to the water sources provided, because total time pigs spent at the drinker did not differ (P &gt; 0.750) among water sources on d 1 through 3 of the experiment. These data indicate that the water sources of differing quality studied did not affect growth performance or health of nursery pigs.

Mindfulness ◽  
2022 ◽  
Jaime Navarrete ◽  
Miguel Ángel García-Salvador ◽  
Ausiàs Cebolla ◽  
Rosa Baños

Abstract Objectives The purpose of this exploratory non-randomized controlled study was to determine the acceptance and effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) co-designed by a police officer. Methods A pretest-posttest control group design was followed. Participants (MBI group = 20; control group = 18) answered baseline and post-training self-reported measures. In addition, the weekly emotional state of the MBI group was collected. Paired-samples t-test and analysis of covariance were performed for pre-post within-group and between-group differences, respectively, as well as linear mixed effects analysis of repeated measures for week-by-week data. Results High acceptance and attendance rates, as well as significant pre-post within-group differences in the MBI group in mindfulness (η2 = 0.43), self-compassion (η2 = 0.43), depression (η2 = 0.54), anxiety (η2 = 0.46), stress (η2 = 0.51), difficulties in emotion regulation, sleep quality (η2 = 0.57), and burnout (η2 = 0.31–0.47), were identified. Moreover, police officers who underwent the MBI experienced a week by week decrease of anger, disgust, anxiety, sadness, and desire. Finally, after adjusting for pre-test scores, significant between-group differences were found in the way of attending to internal and external experiences (observing mindfulness facet; ηp2 = 0.21), depression symptoms (ηp2 = 0.23), general distress (ηp2 = 0.24), and the degree of physical and psychological exhaustion (personal burnout; ηp2 = 0.20). Conclusions The preliminary effectiveness of this MBI on psychopathology and quality of life outcomes in Spanish police officers was discussed. Previous evidence regarding the promising use of MBIs in this population was supported.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Anne Dorothée Rösch ◽  
Ethan Taub ◽  
Ute Gschwandtner ◽  
Peter Fuhr

Background:Recent studies suggest movements of speech and gait in patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) are impaired by a common underlying rhythmic dysfunction. If this being the case, motor deficits in speech and gait should equally benefit from rhythmic interventions regardless of whether it is a speech-specific or step-training-specific approach.Objective:In this intervention trial, we studied the effects of two rhythmic interventions on speech and gait. These rhythmic intervention programs are similar in terms of intensity and frequency (i.e., 3x per week, 45 min-long sessions for 4 weeks in total), but differ regarding therapeutic approach (rhythmic speech vs. rhythmic balance-mobility training).Methods:This study is a cross-over, parallel multi-arms, single blind intervention trial, in which PD patients treated with rhythmic speech-language therapy (rSLT; N = 16), rhythmic balance-mobility training (rBMT; N = 10), or no therapy (NT; N = 18) were compared to healthy controls (HC; N = 17; matched by age, sex, and education: p &gt; 0.82). Velocity and cadence in speech and gait were evaluated at baseline (BL), 4 weeks (4W-T1), and 6 months (6M-T2) and correlated.Results:Parameters in speech and gait (i.e., speaking and walking velocity, as well as speech rhythm with gait cadence) were positively correlated across groups (p &lt; 0.01). Statistical analyses involved repeated measures ANOVA across groups and time, as well as independent and one-samples t-tests for within groups analyses. Statistical analyses were amplified using Reliable Change (RC) and Reliable Change Indexes (RCI) to calculate true clinically significant changes due to the treatment on a patient individual level. Rhythmic intervention groups improved across variables and time (total Mean Difference: 3.07 [SD 1.8]; 95% CI 0.2–11.36]) compared to the NT group, whose performance declined significantly at 6 months (p &lt; 0.01). HC outperformed rBMT and NT groups across variables and time (p &lt; 0.001); the rSLT performed similarly to HC at 4 weeks and 6 months in speech rhythm and respiration.Conclusions:Speech and gait deficits in PD may share a common mechanism in the underlying cortical circuits. Further, rSLT was more beneficial to dysrhythmic PD patients than rBMT, likely because of the nature of the rhythmic cue.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 830
Pedro Harry-Leite ◽  
Manuel Paquete ◽  
José Teixeira ◽  
Miguel Santos ◽  
José Sousa ◽  

This study aimed to compare the acute effect of a proprioceptive exercise session and a non-specific exercise session on knee position sense, and the static and dynamic balance of athletes. Sixty male athletes (19.4 ± 1.2 years) participated in a within-subjects repeated-measures study. Knee position sense in closed kinetic chain, and static (BESS test) and dynamic balance (Y-balance test) were measured before and after two exercise sessions, consisting of 10 min of non-specific exercise in a cycle-ergometer or proprioceptive exercise with an unstable platform. Overall, both exercise sessions significantly improved knee position sense, BESS score, and YBT composite score, and no differences were detected between proprioceptive and non-specific sessions (knee position sense, −6.9 ± 65.2% vs. −11.5 ± 75.0%, p = 0.680; BESS, −19.3 ± 47.7% vs. −29.03 ± 23.5%, p = 0.121; YBT, 2.6 ± 2.7% vs. 2.2 ± 2.2%, p = 0.305). Twenty athletes did not improve knee position sense after the exercise session (non-responders). When analyzing only the exercise responders, both sessions improved knee position sense, but the improvement was greater after the proprioceptive exercise session (56.4 ± 25.6% vs. 43.8 ± 18.9%, p = 0.023). In conclusion, a single proprioceptive, as well as non-specific, exercise session increased knee position sense and balance. The proprioceptive exercise seems to be more effective in improving joint position sense when considering only athletes who respond to the intervention.

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