granular flow
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2021 ◽  
Vol 933 ◽  
C. Tregaskis ◽  
C.G. Johnson ◽  
X. Cui ◽  
J.M.N.T. Gray

A blunt obstacle in the path of a rapid granular avalanche generates a bow shock (a jump in the avalanche thickness and velocity), a region of static grains upstream of the obstacle, and a grain-free region downstream. Here, it is shown that this interaction is qualitatively altered if the incline on which the avalanche is flowing is changed from smooth to rough. On a rough incline, the friction between the grains and the incline depends on the flow thickness and speed, which allows both rapid (supercritical) and slow (subcritical) steady uniform avalanches. For supercritical experimental flows, the material is diverted around a blunt obstacle by the formation of a bow shock and a static dead zone upstream of the obstacle. Downslope, a grain-free vacuum region forms, but, in contrast to flows on smooth beds, static levees form at the boundary between the vacuum region and the flow. In slower, subcritical, flows the flow is diverted smoothly around the dead zone and the obstacle without forming a bow shock. After the avalanche stops, signatures of the dead zone, levees and (in subcritical flows) a deeper region upslope of the obstacle are frozen into the deposit. To capture this behaviour, numerical simulations are performed with a depth-averaged avalanche model that includes frictional hysteresis and depth-averaged viscous terms, which are needed to accurately model the flowing and deposited regions. These results may be directly relevant to geophysical mass flows and snow avalanches, which flow over rough terrain and may impact barriers or other infrastructure.

2021 ◽  
pp. 115-120
S. Sureka ◽  
C. Kavinkumar ◽  
Rakesh J. Pillai

C.W.W. Ng ◽  
Haiming Liu ◽  
Clarence E. Choi ◽  
Aastha Bhatta ◽  
Min Zheng

A basal clearance is usually designed beneath barriers to enable sufficient discharge to minimise the maintenance work over service life. Current design guidelines for multiple barriers usually neglect the influence of basal clearance, resulting in either an over-conservative or a non-conservative design impact force acting on the subsequent barriers. In this study, physical model tests were carried out to investigate the effects of basal clearance height (Hc) beneath first barrier on the interaction between dry granular flow and dual rigid barriers. A new approach based on the hydrodynamic equation is proposed to estimate the impact force on the second barrier exerted by the basal discharge from the first barrier. This basal discharge can attenuate the impact force exerted on the second barrier by dissipating the kinetic energy of landing flow and apportioning the load contributions from discharge and overflow. For the first barrier with a barrier height HB1 that was twice of the flow depth h0, the impact force on the second barrier was governed by overflow when Hc/h0 ≤ 0.6 and was dominated by basal discharge when Hc/h0 ≥ 0.8. These two criteria provide a basis for optimising the impact forces for multiple-barrier systems with basal clearances.

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