Canadian Geotechnical Journal
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Published By Canadian Science Publishing

1208-6010, 0008-3674

Siya Rimoy ◽  
Matias Silva ◽  
Richard J. Jardine

Uncertainties regarding the axial cyclic behaviour of piles driven in sands led to an extended programme of calibration chamber instrumented pile experiments. Broad trends are identified and interpreted with reference to normalised cyclic loading parameters Qcyclic/QT, Qmean/QT and N. Cyclic damage is shown to be related to changes in the radial effective stress regime close to the shaft. While stable loading leads to little or no change as cycling continues in the sand masses’ effective stress regime, high-level cyclic loading can affect stresses far out into the sand mass. The test systems’ chamber-to-pile diameter ratio has a significant impact on outcomes. Piles installed in loose, fine, sand are far more susceptible to cyclic loading than in denser, coarser sand. Little or no change in pile stiffness was seen in tests that remained within the stable cyclic region, even over 10,000 or more cycles. Unstable tests lost their stiffness rapidly and metastable cases showed intermediate behaviours. The permanent deflections developed under cycling depend on the combined influence of Qcyclic/QT, Qmean/QT and N. While model tests provide many valuable insights into the behaviour of piles driven in sand, they are unable to capture some key features observed in the field.

Jiying Fan ◽  
R. Kerry Rowe ◽  
Richard W.I. Brachman

Microstructure showing the involvement of the fine and coarse grains in the soil skeleton is evaluated. Incremental loading tests using a stress-dependent permeameter are conducted on the mixtures of poorly graded sand and nonplastic fines originating from tailings. The results are compared with the published data of various tailings. It is shown that increasing the fines content from 0 to 100%, the involvement of the fine and coarse components of soil skeleton can be classified into four categories: no fines involvement (<10% fines), fines partially involved (10% —35% fines), increasing cushioning effect surrounding the coarse (35% — 40% fines), and constant cushioning effect (> 40% fines). At the same consolidation stress, the void ratio, e, rapidly decreases for fines less than 30%, then almost remains constant between 30% and 50% fines, and gradually increases for fines exceeding 50%. The hydraulic conductivity, k, decreases more than 20-fold as the fines content increases from 12% to 50%, then remains constant. k is proportional to [e3/(1+e)]A and inversely proportional to S2, where A is a factor describing the effect of particle angularity and S is the specific surface. Finally, the influence of fines content on the seepage-induced internal stability is discussed.

Pengpeng He ◽  
Tim Newson

Wind turbines are typically designed based on fatigue and serviceability limit states, but still require an accurate assessment of bearing capacity. Overconsolidated clay deposits in Canada often have a thin layer of crust with a relatively high undrained shear strength developed from weathering, desiccation, and geo-chemical processes. However, existing design methods only assess the bearing capacity using effective area and inclination factor without consideration of surficial crusts. This paper studies the undrained VHMT (vertical, horizontal, moment and torsional) failure envelope of circular foundations founded on a surficial crust underlain by a uniform soil with a zero-tension interface condition using finite element analysis. An analytical expression for the VHMT failure envelope is derived.

Nathan Lee Young ◽  
Jean-Michel Lemieux ◽  
Laura Mony ◽  
Alexandra Germain ◽  
Pascal Locat ◽  

Vibrating wire piezometers provide a number of advantages over the traditional hydraulic piezometer design. There are currently many methods and configurations for installing vibrating-wire piezometers, the most common being: single piezometers in sand packs (SP), multilevel piezometers in sand packs (MLSP), and fully-grouted multilevel piezometers using either bentonite (FGB) or cement-bentonite grout (FGCB). This study assesses the performance of these four different installation methods at a field site possessing complex stratigraphy, including glacial and marine sediments. To accomplish this objective, pore pressure data recorded between December 2017 and July 2019 were analyzed. Data indicate that SP, MLSP, and FGB piezometers performed most reliably, based on the fact that piezometers installed at the same depth with these methods recorded similar pressure variations that were coherent with the hydrogeological setting. Of the two fully-grouted installations using cement-bentonite grout, one installation failed completely due to a hydraulic short circuit, likely caused by preferential flow occurring along the wires of the embedded instruments. The lack of a standard method for mixing cement-bentonite grout at the time of construction likely contributed to the failure of the FGCB installations, as the grout mixture used in this study was likely too viscous to provide a suitable seal.

Xianwei Zhang ◽  
Xinyu Liu ◽  
Lingwei Kong ◽  
Gang Wang ◽  
Cheng Chen

Most previous studies have focused on the small strain stiffness of sedimentary soil while little attention has been given to residual soils with different properties. Most studies also neglected the effects of the deviator stress, which is extensively involved in civil engineering. This note considers the effects of the deviator stress on the small-strain stiffness of natural granite residual soil (GRS) as established from resonant column tests performed under various stress ratios. Although increasing the stress ratio results in a greater maximum shear modulus for both natural and remolded residual soils, remolded soil is more sensitive to changes in the stress ratio, which highlights the effects of soil cementation. The data herein offers new insights to understand the stiffness of residual soil and other weathered geomaterials.

Alister Smith ◽  
Giorgio Barone ◽  
Rene Wackrow ◽  
Richard Stanley

The objective of this study was to develop quantitative acoustic emission (AE) interpretation for uplift pipeline-soil interaction behaviour, enabling early warning of serviceability and ultimate limit state failures in the field. A series of large-scale uplift experiments was performed on a steel pipe in sand with different burial depths (i.e., stress levels), and varying rates of deformation were imposed. A suite of AE parameters was compared with the pipe force and displacement behaviour. Image-based deformation measurements were used to monitor the soil displacement field. AE generation was proportional to the imposed stress level and pipe displacement rate and related to the evolution of the pipe/soil failure mechanism. Relationships have been quantified between AE generation and stress level (R2 values of 0.99), and between AE generation rate and pipe velocity (R2 values ranging from 0.95 to 0.98), enabling interpretation of accelerating deformation behaviour that accompanies progressive ground failure processes. An example interpretation framework demonstrates how AE parameters can be used to identify the mobilisation of peak uplift resistance and quantify accelerating deformation behaviour during post-peak softening.

Rashid Bashir ◽  
Muhammad Abid Nawaz Sahi ◽  
Jitendra Sharma

Location-specific climate datasets are required for the design and evaluation of a number of civil engineering projects. It requires huge effort to compile a multi-year quality-controlled climate dataset. In this paper, a method of generating simulated daily climate variables of interest from readily-available climate normal using a general purpose weather generator SIMETAW is presented. The accuracy of this method is assessed by comparing the climate datasets generated using SIMETAW with the recorded historical climate datasets for nine different sites across Canada with climates ranging from semi-arid to pre-humid. This comparison was done using visual presentations as well as statistical analyses of the two datasets. It was found that the multi-year daily climate datasets generated by SIMETAW using just 12 monthly climate normal values are fairly similar to the recorded historical climate datasets. The usefulness of SIMETAW-generated climate datasets was demonstrated by using them in numerical simulations of three different design problems, namely, infiltration into soils, swelling potential of an expansive soil, and soil cover design. From the results of these numerical simulations, it is concluded that the SIMETAW-generated multi-year daily climate datasets are satisfactory for use in the geotechnical and geoenvironmental problems of the kind simulated herein.

Mohammad R. H. Gorakhki ◽  
Christopher Bareither ◽  
Joseph Scalia

A commingled waste rock and tailings test pile and a waste rock test pile were evaluated to determine saturated hydraulic conductivity and destructively sampled to measure dry density. The commingled test pile contained a mixture of filtered tailings and waste rock blended to isolate waste rock particles as inclusions within the tailings matrix. Test piles were constructed in the shape of truncated 5-m tall pyramids with 25-m base sides and flat 5-m × 5-m top surfaces, and instrumented to monitor water content (and additional geochemical indicator parameters) within the test pile and seepage from the base of the pile. Piles were decommissioned after 26 months of operation. Saturated hydraulic conductivities were measured using sealed double ring infiltrometers (2.4-m square outer-ring and 1-m square inner-ring). Tensiometers and embedded water content sensors were used to measure progression of the wetting front, and the final location of the wetting front in the commingled test pile was directly measured during decommissioning. Field-measured saturated hydraulic conductivities were compared to laboratory-measured results intended to simulate the test piles. Despite having a lower average density, the commingled waste rock and tailings had a hydraulic conductivity approximately 2.5-times lower than the waste rock.

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