design guidelines
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2022 ◽  
pp. 1-30
Wei Zheng ◽  
Adam Kramschuster ◽  
Alex Jordan

Abstract This article discusses technologies focused on processing plastic materials or producing direct tools used in plastics processing. The article focuses on extrusion and injection molding, covering applications, materials and their properties, equipment, processing details, part design guidelines, and special processes. It also covers the functions of the extruder, webline handling, mixing and compounding operations, and process troubleshooting. Thermoforming and mold design are covered. Various other technologies for polymer processing covered in this article are blow molding, rotational molding, compression molding, transfer molding, hand lay-up process, casting, and additive manufacturing.

2022 ◽  
Vol 41 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-16
Benjamin Jones ◽  
Yuxuan Mei ◽  
Haisen Zhao ◽  
Taylor Gotfrid ◽  
Jennifer Mankoff ◽  

We present an interactive design system for knitting that allows users to create template patterns that can be fabricated using an industrial knitting machine. Our interactive design tool is novel in that it allows direct control of key knitting design axes we have identified in our formative study and does so consistently across the variations of an input parametric template geometry. This is achieved with two key technical advances. First, we present an interactive meshing tool that lets users build a coarse quadrilateral mesh that adheres to their knit design guidelines. This solution ensures consistency across the parameter space for further customization over shape variations and avoids helices, promoting knittability. Second, we lift and formalize low-level machine knitting constraints to the level of this coarse quad mesh. This enables us to not only guarantee hand- and machine-knittability, but also provides automatic design assistance through auto-completion and suggestions. We show the capabilities through a set of fabricated examples that illustrate the effectiveness of our approach in creating a wide variety of objects and interactively exploring the space of design variations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (9) ◽  
pp. 1-35
Ismaeel Al Ridhawi ◽  
Ouns Bouachir ◽  
Moayad Aloqaily ◽  
Azzedine Boukerche

Internet of Things (IoT) systems have advanced greatly in the past few years, especially with the support of Machine Learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) solutions. Numerous AI-supported IoT devices are playing a significant role in providing complex and user-specific smart city services. Given the multitude of heterogeneous wireless networks, the plethora of computer and storage architectures and paradigms, and the abundance of mobile and vehicular IoT devices, true smart city experiences are only attainable through a cooperative intelligent and secure IoT framework. This article provides an extensive study on different cooperative systems and envisions a cooperative solution that supports the integration and collaboration among both centralized and distributed systems, in which intelligent AI-supported IoT devices such as smart UAVs provide support in the data collection, processing and service provisioning process. Moreover, secure and collaborative decentralized solutions such as Blockchain are considered in the service provisioning process to enable enhanced privacy and authentication features for IoT applications. As such, user-specific complex services and applications within smart city environments will be delivered and made available in a timely, secure, and efficient manner.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-19
Abbas Fathi ◽  
Georges El-Saikaly ◽  
Omar Chaallal

Reinforced concrete (RC) structures subjected to cyclic fatigue loading are prone to progressive damage. Among the types of structural damage, those leading to shear deficiencies can result in sudden rupture of structures without warning. Hence, RC structures deficient in shear urgently need retrofitting. The use of externally bonded (EB) fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites presents many advantages and is a very promising technology for shear strengthening of RC structures. This paper encompasses a wide range of research findings related to the interaction between concrete and FRP under fatigue loading. The behavior of the bond between FRP and concrete plays a major role in the failure mode of FRP shear-strengthened structures especially under fatigue. Therefore, it is of interest to characterize the FRP/concrete interaction using appropriate models with respect to the influencing parameters. The paper will first discuss existing design guidelines and considerations related to the fatigue behavior of RC structures. A thorough review of available literature on EB-FRP/concrete bond in shear under cyclic fatigue loading will then be presented, with a focus on proposed bond-slip models and finite element studies of the FRP/concrete interface under fatigue loading.

2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
pp. 012015
Dirk Herzog ◽  
Karim Asami ◽  
Christoph Scholl ◽  
Christoph Ohle ◽  
Claus Emmelmann ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (GROUP) ◽  
pp. 1-22
Melanie Duckert ◽  
Louise Barkhuus

Digital health data is important to keep secure, and patients' perception around the privacy of it is essential to the development of digital health records. In this paper we present people's perceptions of the communication of data protection, in relation to their personal health data and the access to it; we focused particularly on people with chronic or long-term illness. Based on their use of personally accessible health records, we inquired into their explicit perception of security and sense of data privacy in relation to their health data. Our goal was to provide insights and guidelines to designers and developers on the communication of data protection in health records in an accessible way for the users. We analyzed their approach to and experience with their own health care records and describe the details of their challenges. A conceptual framework called "Privacy Awareness' was developed from the findings and reflects the perspectives of the users. The conceptual framework forms the basis of a proposal for design guidelines for Digital Health Record systems, which aim to address, facilitate and improve the users' awareness of the protection of their online health data.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 333
Luca Oggioni ◽  
David Sanchez del Rio Kandel ◽  
Giorgio Pariani

In the framework of earth observation for scientific purposes, we consider a multiband spatial compressive sensing (CS) acquisition system, based on a pushbroom scanning. We conduct a series of analyses to address the effects of the satellite movement on its performance in a context of a future space mission aimed at monitoring the cryosphere. We initially apply the state-of-the-art techniques of CS to static images, and evaluate the reconstruction errors on representative scenes of the earth. We then extend the reconstruction algorithms to pushframe acquisitions, i.e., static images processed line-by-line, and pushbroom acquisitions, i.e., moving frames, which consider the payload displacement during acquisition. A parallel analysis on the classical pushbroom acquisition strategy is also performed for comparison. Design guidelines following this analysis are then provided.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 295-307
Changyong Liu ◽  
Yin Qiu ◽  
Yanliang Liu ◽  
Kun Xu ◽  
Ning Zhao ◽  

AbstractThree-dimensional (3D) grid porous electrodes introduce vertically aligned pores as a convenient path for the transport of lithium-ions (Li-ions), thereby reducing the total transport distance of Li-ions and improving the reaction kinetics. Although there have been other studies focusing on 3D electrodes fabricated by 3D printing, there still exists a gap between electrode design and their electrochemical performance. In this study, we try to bridge this gap through a comprehensive investigation on the effects of various electrode parameters including the electrode porosity, active material particle diameter, electrode electronic conductivity, electrode thickness, line width, and pore size on the electrochemical performance. Both numerical simulations and experimental investigations are conducted to systematically examine these effects. 3D grid porous Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) thick electrodes are fabricated by low temperature direct writing technology and the electrodes with the thickness of 1085 µm and areal mass loading of 39.44 mg·cm−2 are obtained. The electrodes display impressive electrochemical performance with the areal capacity of 5.88 mAh·cm−[email protected] C, areal energy density of 28.95 J·cm−[email protected] C, and areal power density of 8.04 mW·cm−[email protected] C. This study can provide design guidelines for obtaining 3D grid porous electrodes with superior electrochemical performance.

Tsubasa Kashino ◽  
Rena Haruki ◽  
Masanori Uji ◽  
Naoyuki Harada ◽  
Masanori Hosoyamada ◽  

2022 ◽  
Bingkun Huang ◽  
Shimi Yang ◽  
Jun Wang ◽  
Peter D Lund

Abstract The shape of container influences natural convection inside a latent heat storage with a phase change material (PCM). Often the geometrical design of a PCM container is based on empirical observations. To enhance convection and melting of the PCM, authors propose here new design guidelines for an improved container. Using the so-called Co-factor method as the optimized basis, which is defined as the vector product of the velocity and temperature gradient, the new design method strives to raise the velocity of natural convection in liquid PCM, increase the amount of PCM in the direction of the convective flow, and reduce the amount of PCM far from the heating surface. Following these guidelines and Co factor, an optimized PCM container with an elongated and curved shape is proposed and compared to a rectangular container. Numerical simulations indicated that the total melting time of the PCM in the optimized container could be reduced by more than 20% compared to the rectangular one. The higher natural convection velocity and the better use of it to melt the PCM in the optimized container space attributed to the better performance than that in rectangular container. The results can be used to design more effective PCM storage systems.

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