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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-28
Author(s):  
Stephanie Lunn ◽  
Monique Ross ◽  
Zahra Hazari ◽  
Mark Allen Weiss ◽  
Michael Georgiopoulos ◽  
...  

Despite increasing demands for skilled workers within the technological domain, there is still a deficit in the number of graduates in computing fields (computer science, information technology, and computer engineering). Understanding the factors that contribute to students’ motivation and persistence is critical to helping educators, administrators, and industry professionals better focus efforts to improve academic outcomes and job placement. This article examines how experiences contribute to a student’s computing identity, which we define by their interest, recognition, sense of belonging, and competence/performance beliefs. In particular, we consider groups underrepresented in these disciplines, women and minoritized racial/ethnic groups (Black/African American and Hispanic/Latinx). To delve into these relationships, a survey of more than 1,600 students in computing fields was conducted at three metropolitan public universities in Florida. Regression was used to elucidate which experiences predict computing identity and how social identification (i.e., as female, Black/African American, and/or Hispanic/Latinx) may interact with these experiences. Our results suggest that several types of experiences positively predict a student’s computing identity, such as mentoring others, having a job, or having friends in computing. Moreover, certain experiences have a different effect on computing identity for female and Hispanic/Latinx students. More specifically, receiving academic advice from teaching assistants was more positive for female students, receiving advice from industry professionals was more negative for Hispanic/Latinx students, and receiving help on classwork from students in their class was more positive for Hispanic/Latinx students. Other experiences, while having the same effect on computing identity across students, were experienced at significantly different rates by females, Black/African American students, and Hispanic/Latinx students. The findings highlight experiential ways in which computing programs can foster computing identity development, particularly for underrepresented and marginalized groups in computing.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Author(s):  
Kaitlyn E. Stepler ◽  
Taneisha R. Gillyard ◽  
Calla B. Reed ◽  
Tyra M. Avery ◽  
Jamaine S. Davis ◽  
...  

African American/Black adults are twice as likely to have Alzheimer’s disease (AD) compared to non-Hispanic White adults. Genetics partially contributes to this disparity in AD risk, among other factors, as there are several genetic variants associated with AD that are more prevalent in individuals of African or European ancestry. The phospholipid-transporting ATPase ABCA7 (ABCA7) gene has stronger associations with AD risk in individuals with African ancestry than in individuals with European ancestry. In fact, ABCA7 has been shown to have a stronger effect size than the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 allele in African American/Black adults. ABCA7 is a transmembrane protein involved in lipid homeostasis and phagocytosis. ABCA7 dysfunction is associated with increased amyloid-beta production, reduced amyloid-beta clearance, impaired microglial response to inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. This review explores the impact of ABCA7 mutations that increase AD risk in African American/Black adults on ABCA7 structure and function and their contributions to AD pathogenesis. The combination of biochemical/biophysical and ‘omics-based studies of these variants needed to elucidate their downstream impact and molecular contributions to AD pathogenesis is highlighted.


2022 ◽  
pp. 002193472110675
Author(s):  
Sherrell Hicklen House

This study explored the adaptive behaviors used by African American college students attending a predominantly White university. In-depth individual interviews were conducted and used as the primary method of data collection for this study. In addition, a focus group session provided member checking opportunity to strengthen the study. The analysis revealed participants utilized multiple adaptive behaviors to combat negative racialized experiences while attending a university where they were underrepresented. These adaptive behaviors were used as resistance strategies by African American students navigating a racially charged university context.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Tinashe Chikowore ◽  
Kenneth Ekoru ◽  
Marijana Vujkovic ◽  
Dipender Gill ◽  
Fraser Pirie ◽  
...  

<b>Objective. </b>Polygenic prediction of type 2 diabetes in<b> </b>continental Africans is adversely affected by the limited number of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of type 2 diabetes from Africa and the poor transferability of European derived polygenic risk scores (PRS) in diverse ethnicities. We set out to evaluate if African American, European or multi-ethnic derived PRSs would improve polygenic prediction in continental Africans. <p><b>Research Design and Methods</b>. Using the PRSice software, ethnic-specific PRSs were computed with weights from the type 2 diabetes GWAS multi-ancestry meta-analysis of 228,499 cases and 1,178,783 controls. The South African Zulu study (1602 cases and 981 controls) was used as the target data set. Validation and assessment of the best predictive PRS association with age at diagnosis was done in the Africa America Diabetes Mellitus (AADM) study (2148 cases and 2161 controls).</p> <p> <b>Results. </b>The discriminatory ability of the African American and Multi-ethnic PRS were similar. However<b>, </b>the African American derived PRS was more transferable in all the countries represented in the AADM cohort, and predictive of type 2 diabetes in the country combined analysis compared to the European and multi-ethnic derived scores. Notably, participants in the 10<sup>th</sup> decile of this PRS had a 3.63-fold greater risk (OR 3.63; 95%CI (2.19 - 4.03), p = 2.79 x 10<sup>-17</sup>) per risk allele of developing diabetes and were diagnosed 2.6 years earlier compared to those in the first decile. </p> <p><b>Conclusions </b>African American derived PRS enhances polygenic prediction of type 2 diabetes in continental Africans. Improved representation of non-European populations (including Africans) in GWAS promises to provide better tools for precision medicine interventions in type 2 diabetes.</p>


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Tinashe Chikowore ◽  
Kenneth Ekoru ◽  
Marijana Vujkovic ◽  
Dipender Gill ◽  
Fraser Pirie ◽  
...  

<b>Objective. </b>Polygenic prediction of type 2 diabetes in<b> </b>continental Africans is adversely affected by the limited number of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of type 2 diabetes from Africa and the poor transferability of European derived polygenic risk scores (PRS) in diverse ethnicities. We set out to evaluate if African American, European or multi-ethnic derived PRSs would improve polygenic prediction in continental Africans. <p><b>Research Design and Methods</b>. Using the PRSice software, ethnic-specific PRSs were computed with weights from the type 2 diabetes GWAS multi-ancestry meta-analysis of 228,499 cases and 1,178,783 controls. The South African Zulu study (1602 cases and 981 controls) was used as the target data set. Validation and assessment of the best predictive PRS association with age at diagnosis was done in the Africa America Diabetes Mellitus (AADM) study (2148 cases and 2161 controls).</p> <p> <b>Results. </b>The discriminatory ability of the African American and Multi-ethnic PRS were similar. However<b>, </b>the African American derived PRS was more transferable in all the countries represented in the AADM cohort, and predictive of type 2 diabetes in the country combined analysis compared to the European and multi-ethnic derived scores. Notably, participants in the 10<sup>th</sup> decile of this PRS had a 3.63-fold greater risk (OR 3.63; 95%CI (2.19 - 4.03), p = 2.79 x 10<sup>-17</sup>) per risk allele of developing diabetes and were diagnosed 2.6 years earlier compared to those in the first decile. </p> <p><b>Conclusions </b>African American derived PRS enhances polygenic prediction of type 2 diabetes in continental Africans. Improved representation of non-European populations (including Africans) in GWAS promises to provide better tools for precision medicine interventions in type 2 diabetes.</p>


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