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2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Chenyi Ling ◽  
Marc D. Cook ◽  
Heather Grimm ◽  
Maitha Aldokhayyil ◽  
Dulce Gomez ◽  

Background. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an independent biomarker of systemic inflammation and a predictor of future cardiovascular disease (CVD). More than just a pure bystander, CRP directly interacts with endothelial cells to decrease endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and bioactivity, decrease nitric oxide (NO) production, and increase the release of vasoconstrictors and adhesion molecules. Race is significantly associated with CRP levels and CVD risks. With aerobic exercise, the vessel wall is exposed to chronic high laminar shear stress (HiLSS) that shifts the endothelium phenotype towards an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and antiproliferative environment. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess the racial differences concerning the CRP-induced effects in endothelial cells and the potential role of HiLSS in mitigating these differences. Methods. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from four African American (AA) and four Caucasian (CA) donors were cultured and incubated under the following conditions: (1) static control, (2) CRP (10 μg/mL, 24 hours), (3) CRP receptor (FcγRIIB) inhibitor followed by CRP stimulation, (4) HiLSS (20 dyne/cm2, 24 hours), and (5) HiLSS followed by CRP stimulation. Results. AA HUVECs had significantly higher FcγRIIB receptor expression under both basal and CRP incubation conditions. Blocking FcγRIIB receptor significantly attenuated the CRP-induced decrements in eNOS expression only in AA HUVECs. Finally, HiLSS significantly counteracted CRP-induced effects. Conclusion. Understanding potential racial differences in endothelial function is important to improve CVD prevention. Our results shed light on FcγRIIB receptor as a potential contributor to racial differences in endothelial function in AA.

2021 ◽  
pp. 073401682110611
Pavel V. Vasiliev

The purpose of this research is to advance the politics of mass imprisonment literature by testing and specifying the macro-explanations of the state-level incarceration change in the United States (U.S.) between 1980 and 2010. Specifically, I account for mechanisms of inter-party competition and public electoral pressure neglected in prior research. To accomplish this goal, I utilize random coefficient models designed to control for repeated annual measures of state-level data that overwhelm traditional analytic techniques. Findings suggest that violent crime, partisan affiliation of state legislators and governors, probation rates, citizen ideology, marijuana decriminalization, and recidivist-focused laws are associated with incarceration as hypothesized, as well as the African American presence net of crime and socioeconomic disadvantage. Contributing to the theoretical debates on democracy and punishment, this paper demonstrates that inter-party competition and public electoral pressure amplify incarceration in the context of Democratic Party dominance, where no liberalizing effects of competition were found. I conclude that legal and extralegal factors are associated with incarceration and suggest that the public did not oppose criminal justice expansion via democratic feedback mechanisms, so both penal populism (Pratt, 2008) and popular punitivism (Campbell et al., 2017) are valid interpretations of imprisonment politics during the analyzed period.

2021 ◽  
Ananya Suresh Iyengar ◽  
Tsachi Ein-Dor ◽  
Emily Xujia Zhang ◽  
Sabrina Josephine Chan ◽  
Anjali Joann Kaimal ◽  

Knowledge of childbirth outcomes of Black and Latinx individuals during the coronavirus pandemic is limited. Black/African American and Latinx/Hispanic individuals were matched to non-Hispanic white individuals on socio-demographics. Minority individuals were nearly three times more likely to have clinically significant traumatic stress in response to childbirth and two times more likely to report postpartum depression. Unplanned Cesarean rates were higher and incidences of skin-to-skin and breastfeeding were lower in the minority group. Racial and ethnic maternal disparities exist during COVID-19.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Aaron J. Smith ◽  
Jaime Daly ◽  
David E. Arnolds ◽  
Barbara M. Scavone ◽  
Brendan Carvalho

Background. False assumptions regarding the generalizability of patients’ expectations and preferences across different demographic groups may contribute in part to the increased prevalence of negative peripartum outcomes seen among women of color. The intention of this study was to determine preferences and concerns regarding anesthesia care during cesarean delivery in a largely African-American population and to compare them to those obtained in a prior study conducted in a demographically distinct population. Methods. Women presenting for scheduled cesarean delivery or induction of labor completed a preoperative survey requesting demographic information and the opportunity to rank ten common potential anesthetic outcomes in relation to each other from most to least desirable. Participants were also asked about their biggest fear concerning their anesthetic and their preferences and expectations regarding degree of wakefulness, pain, and other adverse events. Those who underwent cesarean delivery were administered a briefer postoperative survey. We tabulated preference rankings and then compared demographic and outcome data to that obtained in a previous study with a demographically dissimilar population. Results. A total of 73 women completed the preoperative survey, and 64 took the postoperative survey. Pain during and after cesarean delivery was ranked as least desirable outcomes and fear of paralysis was respondents’ principal concern with neuraxial anesthesia. Postoperative concerns were similar to preoperative concerns and did not correlate with the frequency with which specific adverse outcomes occurred. These results were consistent with those from the previous study despite the women in this study being more likely to be younger, unmarried, African-American, and less educated than those in the previous investigation. Conclusions. Patient preference rankings and concerns were remarkably similar to those previously demonstrated despite a number of demographic differences between the two populations, suggesting generalizability of these preferences to a broader obstetric population.

Traci Hayes ◽  
LaWanda Baskin ◽  
Tanya Funchess ◽  
Samaria Lowe ◽  
Susan Mayfield-Johnson

African American pastors are recognized as trusted information sources for their communities. The pastors willing to address health-related concerns such as preventing the spread of the coronavirus are invaluable for leading their congregation through relevant health programs. Underlining the importance of religion, spirituality, and faith-based leaders in addressing and furthering health promotion research, the article discusses lessons learned during the study implementation and the recommendations for engaging minority pastors in research during a global health pandemic.

2021 ◽  
Vol 47 (12) ◽  
pp. 27-34
Nadia Winston ◽  
Barbara Swanson ◽  
Louis F. Fogg ◽  
Ana W. Capuano ◽  
JoEllen Wilbur ◽  

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