amyloid beta
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2022 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Kaitlyn E. Stepler ◽  
Taneisha R. Gillyard ◽  
Calla B. Reed ◽  
Tyra M. Avery ◽  
Jamaine S. Davis ◽  

African American/Black adults are twice as likely to have Alzheimer’s disease (AD) compared to non-Hispanic White adults. Genetics partially contributes to this disparity in AD risk, among other factors, as there are several genetic variants associated with AD that are more prevalent in individuals of African or European ancestry. The phospholipid-transporting ATPase ABCA7 (ABCA7) gene has stronger associations with AD risk in individuals with African ancestry than in individuals with European ancestry. In fact, ABCA7 has been shown to have a stronger effect size than the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 allele in African American/Black adults. ABCA7 is a transmembrane protein involved in lipid homeostasis and phagocytosis. ABCA7 dysfunction is associated with increased amyloid-beta production, reduced amyloid-beta clearance, impaired microglial response to inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. This review explores the impact of ABCA7 mutations that increase AD risk in African American/Black adults on ABCA7 structure and function and their contributions to AD pathogenesis. The combination of biochemical/biophysical and ‘omics-based studies of these variants needed to elucidate their downstream impact and molecular contributions to AD pathogenesis is highlighted.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0255715
Edward T. Parkin ◽  
Jessica E. Hammond ◽  
Lauren Owens ◽  
Matthew D. Hodges

The amyloid cascade hypothesis proposes that excessive accumulation of amyloid beta-peptides is the initiating event in Alzheimer’s disease. These neurotoxic peptides are generated from the amyloid precursor protein via sequential cleavage by β- and γ-secretases in the ’amyloidogenic’ proteolytic pathway. Alternatively, the amyloid precursor protein can be processed via the ’non-amyloidogenic’ pathway which, through the action of the α-secretase a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 10, both precludes amyloid beta-peptide formation and has the additional benefit of generating a neuroprotective soluble amyloid precursor protein fragment, sAPPα. In the current study, we investigated whether the orphan drug, dichloroacetate, could alter amyloid precursor protein proteolysis. In SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, dichloroacetate enhanced sAPPα generation whilst inhibiting β–secretase processing of endogenous amyloid precursor protein and the subsequent generation of amyloid beta-peptides. Over-expression of the amyloid precursor protein partly ablated the effect of dichloroacetate on amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic processing whilst over-expression of the β-secretase only ablated the effect on amyloidogenic processing. Similar enhancement of ADAM-mediated amyloid precursor protein processing by dichloroacetate was observed in unrelated cell lines and the effect was not exclusive to the amyloid precursor protein as an ADAM substrate, as indicated by dichloroacetate-enhanced proteolysis of the Notch ligand, Jagged1. Despite altering proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein, dichloroacetate did not significantly affect the expression/activity of α-, β- or γ-secretases. In conclusion, dichloroacetate can inhibit amyloidogenic and promote non-amyloidogenic proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein. Given the small size and blood-brain-barrier permeability of the drug, further research into its mechanism of action with respect to APP proteolysis may lead to the development of therapies for slowing the progression of Alzheimer’s disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Eun-Hye Lee ◽  
Hyuk Sung Kwon ◽  
Seong-Ho Koh ◽  
Seong Hye Choi ◽  
Jeong-Hwa Jin ◽  

Abstract Background Neurofilament light chain (NFL) level has been suggested as a blood-based biomarker for neurodegeneration in dementia. However, the association between baseline NFL levels and cognitive stage transition or cortical thickness is unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether baseline NFL levels are associated with cognitive stage transition or cortical thickness in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and cognitively unimpaired (CU) participants. Methods This study analyzed data on participants from the independent validation cohort of the Korea Brain Aging Study for the Early Diagnosis and Prediction of Alzheimer’s disease (KBASE-V) study. Among the participants of KBASE-V study, 53 MCI and 146 CU participants who were followed up for ≥ 2 years and had data on the serum NFL levels were eligible for inclusion in this study. Participants were classified into three groups according to baseline serum NFL levels of low, middle, or high. Results The Kaplan–Meier analysis showed association between the serum NFL tertiles and risk of cognitive stage transition in MCI (P = 0.002) and CU (P = 0.028) participants, analyzed separately. The same is true upon analysis of MCI and CU participants together (P < 0.001). In MCI participants, the highest serum NFL tertile and amyloid-beta positivity were independent predictors for cognitive stage transition after adjusting for covariates. For CU participants, only amyloid-beta positivity was identified to be an independent predictor. Conclusion The study shows that higher serum NFL tertile levels correlate with increased risk of cognitive stage transition in both MCI and CU participants. Serum NFL levels were negatively correlated with the mean cortical thickness of the whole-brain and specific brain regions.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 142
Meitong He ◽  
Jihyun Kim ◽  
Chanhum Park ◽  
Eunju Cho

Deposition of amyloid-beta (Aβ) in the aging brain has been often observed and is thought to be a pathological feature of Alzheimer’s disease. The use of natural products for disease prevention and treatment is gaining attention worldwide. Carthamus tinctorius L. seed and Taraxacum coreanum have been used as traditional medicines in Asian countries, where they have been reported to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. It has been demonstrated that the combination of C. tinctorius L. seed and T. coreanum has an effect on cognitive enhancement, indicating a ratio of 5:5 synergistically enhancing learning and memory abilities in comparison with a single treatment. Here, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of C. tinctorius L. seed and T. coreanum mixture (CT) at different concentrations on cognition in Aβ25-35-infused mice. CT-administered mice showed significant cognitive improvement in the T-maze, novel object recognition, and Morris water maze tests. Moreover, amyloidogenesis-related proteins, such as β-secretase and γ-secretase, were detected and their protein levels decreased after treatment with CT. Our study shows that CT attenuates cognitive dysfunction by improving learning and memory capability and regulating Aβ-related proteins in Aβ25-35-injected mice. These findings suggest that CT might be a candidate for functional food on cognitive improvement.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Maria Grazia Morgese ◽  
Maria Bove ◽  
Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli ◽  
Stefania Schiavone ◽  
Anna Laura Colia ◽  

Alzheimer’s disease (AD), one of the most widespread neurodegenerative disorder, is a fatal global burden for the elder population. Although many efforts have been made, the search of a curative therapy is still ongoing. Individuating phenotypic traits that might help in investigating treatment response is of growing interest in AD research. AD is a complex pathology characterized by many comorbidities, such as depression and increased susceptibility to pain perception, leading to postulate that these conditions may rely on common biological substrates yet to be determined. In order to investigate those biological determinants to be associable with phenotypic traits, we used the rat model of amyloid beta-induced toxicity. This established model of early phase of AD is obtained by the intracerebroventricular injection of soluble amyloid beta1-42 (Aβ) peptide 7 days before performing experiments. In this model, we have previously reported increased immobility in the forced swimming test, reduced cortical serotonin levels and subtle alterations in the cognitive domain a depressive-like phenotype associated with subtle alteration in memory processes. In light of evaluating pain perception in this animal model, we performed two different behavioral tests commonly used, such as the paw pressure test and the cold plate test, to analyze mechanical hyperalgesia and thermal allodynia, respectively. Behavioural outcomes confirmed the memory impairment in the social recognition test and, compared to sham, Aβ-injected rats showed an increased selective susceptibility to mechanical but not to thermal stimulus. Behavioural data were then corroborated by neurochemical and biochemical biomarker analyses either at central or peripheral level. Data showed that the peptide injection evoked a significant increase in hypothalamic glutamate, kynurenine and dopamine content, while serotonin levels were reduced. Plasma Cystatin-C, a cysteine protease, was increased while serotonin and melatonin levels were decreased in Aβ-injected rats. Urinary levels paralleled plasma quantifications, indicating that Aβ-induced deficits in pain perception, mood and cognitive domain may also depend on these biomarkers. In conclusion, in the present study, we demonstrated that this animal model can mimic several comorbid conditions typical of the early phase of AD. Therefore, in the perspective of generating novel therapeutic strategies relevant to precision medicine in AD, this animal model and the biomarkers evaluated herein may represent an advantageous approach.

2022 ◽  
Mouli Konar ◽  
Debasis Ghosh ◽  
Sourav Samanta ◽  
T. Govindaraju

Amyloid beta (Aβ) aggregation species-associated cellular stress instigates cytotoxicity and adverse cellular stiffness to neuronal cells. The study and modulation of these adverse effects demand immediate attention to tackle Alzheimer’s...

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (8) ◽  
pp. 0
AlejandroR Roda ◽  
Gabriel Serra-Mir ◽  
Laia Montoliu-Gaya ◽  
Lidia Tiessler ◽  
Sandra Villegas

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