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2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Julie Dangremond Stanton ◽  
Darris R. Means ◽  
Oluwadamilola Babatola ◽  
Chimezie Osondu ◽  
Omowunmi Oni ◽  

A participatory action research approach was used to identify the community cultural wealth Black science majors use to navigate the racial climate at a predominantly white institution (PWI). Black science students use their internal strengths to succeed in their majors, and they create spaces where they share support and resources to thrive at a PWI.

2022 ◽  
pp. 002193472110675
Sherrell Hicklen House

This study explored the adaptive behaviors used by African American college students attending a predominantly White university. In-depth individual interviews were conducted and used as the primary method of data collection for this study. In addition, a focus group session provided member checking opportunity to strengthen the study. The analysis revealed participants utilized multiple adaptive behaviors to combat negative racialized experiences while attending a university where they were underrepresented. These adaptive behaviors were used as resistance strategies by African American students navigating a racially charged university context.

2022 ◽  
pp. 216769682110646
Seanna Leath ◽  
Meredith O. Hope ◽  
Gordon J. M. Palmer ◽  
Theda Rose

To date, few scholars have explored religious and spiritual socialization among emerging adult Black women. In this study, we analyzed semi-structured interview data from 50 Black undergraduate women to explore associations between childhood religious socialization messages and current religious beliefs in emerging adulthood. Consensual qualitative methods revealed two broad domains and six themes. The first domain, “religious alignment,” included: (1) internalizing religion and (2) educating others on religious beliefs. The second domain, “religious departure,” included: (3) modifying religious expectations to fit developing beliefs, (4) employing religion as a pathway to self-acceptance, (5) picking and choosing battles within their religious community, and (6) choosing an alternate religious or faith system. Findings highlighted how the women started to take ownership of their religious experiences, as well as how they used religious practices, such as prayer, to cope with gendered racism. Authors discuss the implications of emerging adulthood on Black women’s religious identities.

2022 ◽  
pp. 243-261
Seema Rivera ◽  
Claudia Hoffman ◽  
Matthew Manierre ◽  
Ali Boolani

The purpose of this chapter is to share the experiences, motivations, and reflections of the authors' efforts of establishing an antiracism institute at a predominantly white STEM university in a small, rural county in Northern New York. To accompany their perspectives, the authors interviewed faculty members involved in this process to identify their motivations and hopes for the institute, along with the challenges and difficulties. This chapter traces the trajectory, motivations, expectations, and challenges of establishing an antiracism institute in a predominately white STEM institution.

Carelson ◽  
Ncube ◽  

The South African agricultural sector has experienced various transformation processes over the past 25 years, from a predominantly white commercial sector to a black focused sector with an emphasis on smallholder farming. The government is committed to supporting the smallholder farming sector through interventions that include land reform and access to water, amongst others. Despite these efforts, smallholder farmers remain vulnerable, especially during drought periods. Smallholder farmers are not homogeneous; instead, they are diverse, and their farming needs also differ according to their livelihood needs. Due to the diversity of smallholder farmers, it is difficult for the government to effectively respond to their needs. The 2015–2018 drought is a case in point. This paper assesses the challenges of defining and classifying smallholder farmers in South Africa. The complex Western Cape classification system is presented as a case study. The study concludes that there is a need for a simpler method of grouping the smallholder farmers based on their livelihoods to develop relevant support systems.

2021 ◽  
Max Jordan Nguemeni Tiako ◽  
James Wages ◽  
Sylvia Perry

Background: The U.S. physician workforce is not representative of the general population, in terms of ethnoracial diversity. Efforts to increase diversity in medical school have long been underway, but have continued to fall short. Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) have been instrumental to the formation of Black physicians at the pre-medical and medical school levels. We sought to identify differences in Black medical students’ experiences at HBCUs vs predominantly white institutions (PWIs). Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort of second-year Black medical students at HBCUs and PWIs. Our sample included 379 Black students attending either HBCU or PWI medical schools. The majority were women (64.9%), ranging from 20 to 43 years of age (M=25.62, SD=3.19). Students were surveyed at three time-points over one academic year. Students completed measures of belonging, perceived competitiveness for residency, and residency specialty goals during each wave.Outcomes were reported sense of belonging, confidence in matching in a top-10 residency program and specialty of interest. We utilized generalized linear methods to determine associations between school type and outcomes, adjusting for age and sex. Results: HBCU students reported a higher sense of belonging and perceived residency competitiveness than PWI students. The institutional difference in sense of belonging increases overtime: sense of belonging increased at HBCUs but decreased at PWIs overtime. HBCU students reported a significantly lower change in residency goals than their PWI counterparts. Lastly, HBCU students were more likely to report an interest in primary care specialties compared to their PWI counterparts.Conclusion: Black medical students who attend HBCUs report a greater sense of belonging than their Black colleagues at PWIs with a gap that widens overtime, and remain more confident in their scholastic capabilities. These findings have implications for PWIs’ efforts towards creating inclusive learning environments for Black medical students.

2021 ◽  
Ella James-Brabham ◽  
Toni Loveridge ◽  
Francesco Sella ◽  
Paul Wakeling ◽  
Daniel J. Carroll ◽  

The socioeconomic attainment gap in mathematical ability is evident before children begin school and widens over time. Little is known about why this early attainment gap emerges. Two studies were conducted in 3- and 4-year-olds, to explore four possible factors that may explain why attainment gaps arise: working memory, inhibitory control, verbal ability, and frequency of home mathematical activities (N = 304, 54% female from a range of ethnic backgrounds but predominantly White British [76%]). Inhibitory control and verbal ability emerged as indirect factors in the relation between socioeconomic status and early mathematical ability, but neither working memory nor home mathematical activities did. These studies provide important insights about how the early attainment gap in mathematical ability may arise.

2021 ◽  
pp. 232949652110525
Maria R. Lowe ◽  
Madeline Carrola ◽  
Dakota Cortez ◽  
Mary Jalufka

In many liberal predominantly white neighborhoods, white residents view their communities as inclusive yet they also engage in racialized surveillance to monitor individuals they perceive as outsiders. Some of these efforts center on people of color in neighborhood open spaces. We use a diversity ideology framework to analyze this contradiction, paying particular attention to how residents of color experience racialized surveillance of their neighborhood’s publicly accessible parks and swimming pools. This article draws on data from neighborhood documents, neighborhood digital platforms, and interviews with residents of a liberal, affluent, predominantly white community that was expressly designed with public spaces open to non-residents. We find that resident surveillance of neighborhood public spaces is racialized, occurs regularly, and happens in person and on neighborhood online platforms where diversity as liability rhetoric is conveyed using colorblind discourse. These monitoring efforts, which are at times supported by formal measures, impact residents of color to varying degrees. We expand on diversity ideology by identifying digital and in-person racialized surveillance as a key mechanism by which white residents attempt to enforce racialized boundaries and protect whiteness in multiracial spaces and by highlighting how Black and Latinx residents, in particular, navigate these practices.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. 528-528
Portia Cornell

Abstract Assisted living (AL) communities with memory care licenses are disproportionately located in affluent and predominantly White communities and Black older adults are underrepresented in AL. But little is known about characteristics of AL that care for Black residents. We estimated the association of facility-level characteristics as proxy measures for AL resources, such as memory care designations and percentage of dual-eligible residents, across low (0-5%), medium (5-10%) and high (>10%) percentages of Black residents. We found broad differences among communities in the three levels of Black-resident prevalence. High percentage of Black residents was associated with large differences in the percentage of Medicaid-enrolled residents (high 54% duals [s.d.=34], med 28% [31], low=13% [22], p<0.001). ALs with high Black populations were less likely to have a memory-care designation than ALs with medium and low percentages of Black residents (high 4.7% memory care, med 11%, low 17%).

Journal ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 17-35
Oda-Kange Diallo ◽  
Nico Miskow Friborg

We write from the starting point of teaching an anthropology course together consisting of predominantly white, middle class cis students. The course collaborated with a local NGO, and the students were given the task to study issues of discrimination and exclusion within youth, leisure activities. This gave us the opportunity to examine, and therefore challenge, what we and our students were taught in terms of ‘the other’, positionality and accountability in anthropological research. We share our journey of creating a norm-critical classroom, which was built on our counter-archive (Haritaworn, Moussa & Ware, 2018) of anti-oppressive, queer, trans, BIPOC1 knowledge. We discuss how we made the students investigate their own positionalities and research interests, through our pedagogy of provoking discomfort by decentering whiteness and cisnormativity. We meditate on what it means to be teachers of anthropology that learn and work from differently marginalized positions within the Academic Industrial Complex (AIC). We honor the treasures we find in anti-oppression knowledge from the margins by joining a collective discussion on how to end epistemic violence within the classroom, the discipline and the broader AIC, while navigating the deeply colonial, cis- and heteronormative fabric of what is considered canon.

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