2008 beijing olympic games
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Retos ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 44 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Jeel Moya-Salazar ◽  
Hugo Rodriguez-Papini ◽  
Alejandro Opazo-Zamora ◽  
Vanessa Pineda-Vidangos ◽  
Victor Carpio-Quintana ◽  

  El objetivo de este estudio fuer presentar al Sistema de Vigilancia de Lesiones y Enfermedades (SVLE) del Comité Olímpico Internacional (COI) diseñado para eventos multideportivos como un insumo para la planificación de los recursos necesarios para competencias deportivas. Desarrollamos una revisión sistemática siguiendo la guía PRISMA considerando como criterio de inclusión los eventos multideportivos con implementación de la SVLE del COI. La búsqueda fue realizada en los principales buscadores científicos (PubMed, Scopus, Scielo, ScientDirect, LILACS, y Latindex), en servidores públicos de pre-publicaciones (bioRxiv, SocArXiv, medRxiv y Preprints) y en metabuscadores (Google Scholar y Yahoo!). En la selección inicial se obtuvieron 367 estudios, incluyéndose 19 estudios para su análisis, donde solo 4 fueron deportes unitarios como fútbol, atletismo y balonmano. El SVLE del COI se ha usado inicialmente a gran escala en los Juegos Olímpicos de Beijing 2008 en 7 idiomas, al día de hoy más de 56,063 atletas en 19 eventos deportivos. En Sudamérica este sistema fue empleado en el I Juegos Deportivos Nacionales de Chile, los Juegos Olímpicos de Verano y los Juegos Olímpicos Rio 2016, y en los Juegos Panamericanos Lima 2019. Esta revisión muestra la experiencia documentada del SVLE del COI a lo largo de más de una década de uso de este instrumento, demostrando que el SVLE representa una herramienta útil, sencilla y ágil para el monitoreo de incidencias sanitarias.  Abstract. The objective of this study was to present the Injury and Illness Surveillance System (SVLE) of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) designed for multi-sport events as an input for planning the necessary resources for sports competitions. We developed a systematic review following the PRISMA guide, considering multi-sport events with implementation of the IOC SVLE as inclusion criteria. The search was carried out in the main scientific search engines (PubMed, Scopus, Scielo, ScientDirect, LILACS, and Latindex), in public pre-publication servers (bioRxiv, SocArXiv, medRxiv, and Preprints), and metasearch engines (Google Scholar and Yahoo!). In the initial selection, 367 studies were obtained, including 19 studies for analysis, where only 4 were unitary sports such as soccer, athletics, and handball. The IOC SVLE has initially been used on a large scale at the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games in 7 languages, monitoring today more than 56,063 athletes in 19 sporting events. In South America, this system was used in the I National Sports Games of Chile, the Summer Olympic Games and the Rio 2016 Olympic Games, and the Lima 2019 Pan American Games. This review shows the documented experience of the IOC SVLE throughout more of a decade of use of this instrument, demonstrating that the SVLE represents a useful, simple, and agile tool for monitoring health incidents.

Courtney J. Fung

Chapter 4 analyzes China’s decision to shift its position on intervention in Sudan over the Darfur crisis. China went from viewing Sudan’s problems as domestic affairs not for the UN Security Council’s purview, to actively supporting intervention. China wrangled and effectively “enforced” consent from Khartoum for a UN Charter Chapter VII peacekeeping mission, and acquiesced to a referral of the Sudan case to the International Criminal Court, which led to an indictment of sitting President Omar al-Bashir. Though this case is popularly understood as being determined by material drivers—like shielding the Sino-Sudanese economic relationship, or addressing the reputational threat of the “Genocide Olympics” to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games—the chapter demonstrates that status is the key variable to explain China’s shifting position. Under mounting pressure from both the great powers (the “P3” of the United States, the United Kingdom, France) and the African Union, in particular, China gravitated to supporting and permitting intervention with a yes vote for the UN-AU Hybrid Peace Operation (UNAMID) and an abstention vote for an International Criminal Court referral in 2005, and again in 2008.

Subject The outlook for professional football in China. Significance Ahead of the start of the new season today, China's football clubs have spent a record 400 million dollars buying players from abroad. Lavish spending on foreign stars raises concerns that the development of Chinese footballers is being held back, putting at risk official ambitions for the national team to repeat at FIFA World Cups the country’s soft-power-projection success with the 2008 Beijing Olympic games. However, China’s leaders also want the domestic game to be the core of a sports-entertainment industry that will help rebalance the economy towards domestic consumption. This requires a kick-start from star power. Impacts China could contest the United States’ eventual challenge to the commercial primacy of Europe’s ‘big five’ leagues. Hosting international football tournaments will bring unwelcome scrutiny in non-sporting areas such as human rights. A chronic shortage of coaches offers business opportunities to foreign-owned football academies. Chinese investment in European clubs to gain operational expertise will continue. Acquiring foreign football brands will add more to Chinese acquirers' domestic value than the European value of the asset.

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