Abstract Smog has become the fifth season of Pakistan especially in Lahore city. Increased level of air pollutants (primary and secondary) are thought to be responsible for the formation of smog in Lahore. Therefore, the current study was carried out for the evaluation of air pollutants (primary and secondary) of smog in Wagah border particularly and other sites (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. For this purpose, baseline data on winter smog from March to December on primary and secondary air pollutants and meteorological parameters was collected from Environmental Protection Department and Pakistan Meteorological Department respectively. Devices being used in both departments for analysis of parameters were also studied. Collected data was further statistically analyzed to determine the correlation of parameters with meteorological conditions and was subjected to air quality index. According to results, PM 10 and PM 2.5 were found very high above the NEQS. NOx concentrations were also high above the permissible limits whereas SO2 and O3 were found below the NEQS thus have no roles in smog formation. Air Quality Index (AQI) of pollutants was PM 2.5(86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) and SO2 (10-95). AQI of PM 2.5 remained between moderate to very unhealthy levels. AQI of PM 10 remained between good to hazardous levels. AQI of NOx remained between good to unhealthy for sensitive groups’ levels. AQI of O3 and SO2 remained between good to moderate levels. Pearson correlation showed that every pollutant has a different relation with different or same parameters in different areas. It is concluded from the present study that particulate matter was much more responsible for smog formation. Although NOx also played role in smog formation. So there is need to reduce sources of particulate matter and NOx specifically in order to reduce smog formation in Lahore.
Abstract The objective of this study was to assess air quality in relation to vehicular traffic flow in cities located at different elevations in the Bodoquena microregion, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. To do so, a micronucleus test was carried out using the TRAD-MCN bioassay on young Tradescantia buds collected from February to November 2018 in seven cities of the microregion with different traffic flow intensities. Meteorological parameters were evaluated, and vehicular traffic was counted to determine traffic flow in each city. With data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and processing in Esri ArcGIS® software version 10.5.1, the regions was mapped based on an Elevation Model. Morphoanatomical analyses were performed according to standard methodology. Measurements were taken of thickness, length and width of tissues and structures, including the upper and lower cuticle, upper and lower epidermis, hypodermis and mesophyll. The greatest traffic flow was found in the cities of Bodoquena, Guia Lopes da Laguna, Jardim, and Porto Murtinho, with the period from 5:00 to 6:00 p.m. showing the highest traffic flow. The greatest frequency of mutagenic alterations was found in the city of Guia Lopes da Laguna, although the results did not differ significantly from Bonito, Caracol, and Jardim. Throughout the biomonitoring, the summer and autumn seasons showed the greatest micronuclei frequencies in all evaluated cities. Variations in the tissue/structure thickness was observed across cities and seasons, but with a decrease in thickness during autumn. In general, the tissues/structures were smaller for the cities of Nioaque and Porto Murtinho, while the anatomical and morphological characteristics of leaf length and thickness showed no differences among cities. We found limited correlation between micronuclei frequency and traffic flow, supporting the hypothesis that although mutagenic alterations are observed in T. pallida, in this microregion the changes are numerically lower when compared to other regions of the state. In light of the genotoxic and morphoanatomical factors assessed herein, the Bodoquena microregion appears to be well preserved in terms of air quality, presenting low micronuclei frequency and a limited reduction in tissues and leaf structures, regardless of the season.