alcohol use disorder
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2022 ◽  
Vol 62 ◽  
pp. 145-151
Anette Søgaard Nielsen ◽  
Gro Askgaard ◽  
Maja Thiele

2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-22
Gabriela Fenollal-Maldonado ◽  
Derek Brown ◽  
Heidi Hoffman ◽  
Chanchal Kahlon ◽  
George Grossberg

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Margaret Ilomuanya ◽  
Ogochukwu Amaeze ◽  
Chinenye Umeche ◽  
Ugochukwu Mbata ◽  
Omonike Shonekan ◽  

Introduction. Successful interventions for substance use disorders (SUDs), though obtainable, are not effectively utilized due to the high cost of treatment. The adoption of any given therapy is often impeded by insufficient evidence of the effectiveness of such treatment. Objective. This study aimed to assess the direct medical cost of treating SUD in two tertiary hospitals in South-West, Nigeria. Methods. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey of patients managed for SUD at the two psychiatric hospitals was carried out between January and June 2020. The inclusion criteria were patients with SUD above 18 years of age, registered and managed at the two hospitals. Data were collected from selected patients' case notes using a standardized data collection tool and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results. The average costs of treatment for alcohol use disorder, drug use disorder, and drug and alcohol use disorder were ₦146,425.38 ± 57,388.84, ₦135,282.09 ± 53,190.39, and ₦143,877.33 ± 68,662.04, respectively. This translates to $384.82, $355.53, and $378.12, respectively. The highest contributors to SUD treatment cost are inpatient admissions and the cost of medicines; inpatient admissions include accommodation, feeding, and laundry. Conclusion. Considering that over 60% of the Nigerian population lives below the poverty line, the direct cost of SUD treatment is unaffordable to the patients and the health care system, which is grossly underfunded.

Johanna A. S. Smeets ◽  
A. Maryse Minnaard ◽  
Geert M. J. Ramakers ◽  
Roger A. H. Adan ◽  
Louk J. M. J. Vanderschuren ◽  

Abstract Rationale Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a complex, heterogeneous disorder that only occurs in a minority of alcohol users. Various behavioral constructs, including excessive intake, habit formation, motivation for alcohol and resistance to punishment have been implicated in AUD, but their interrelatedness is unclear. Objective The aim of this study was therefore to explore the relation between these AUD-associated behavioral constructs in rats. We hypothesised that a subpopulation of animals could be identified that, based on these measures, display consistent AUD-like behavior. Methods Lister Hooded rats (n = 47) were characterised for alcohol consumption, habit formation, motivation for alcohol and quinine-adulterated alcohol consumption. The interrelation between these measures was evaluated through correlation and cluster analyses. In addition, addiction severity scores were computed using different combinations of the behavioral measures, to assess the consistency of the AUD-like subpopulation. Results We found that the data was uniformly distributed, as there was no significant tendency of the behavioral measures to cluster in the dataset. On the basis of multiple ranked addiction severity scores, five animals (~ 11%) were classified as displaying AUD-like behavior. The composition of the remaining subpopulation of animals with the highest addiction severity score (9 rats; ~ 19%) varied, depending on the combination of measures included. Conclusion Consistent AUD-like behavior was detected in a small proportion of alcohol drinking rats. Alcohol consumption, habit formation, motivation for alcohol and punishment resistance contribute in varying degrees to the AUD-like phenotype across the population. These findings emphasise the importance of considering the heterogeneity of AUD-like behavior.

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