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2022 ◽  
Vol 28 ◽  
pp. 82-89
Budi Hidayat ◽  
Royasia Viki Ramadani ◽  
Achmad Rudijanto ◽  
Pradana Soewondo ◽  
Ketut Suastika ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Margaret Ilomuanya ◽  
Ogochukwu Amaeze ◽  
Chinenye Umeche ◽  
Ugochukwu Mbata ◽  
Omonike Shonekan ◽  

Introduction. Successful interventions for substance use disorders (SUDs), though obtainable, are not effectively utilized due to the high cost of treatment. The adoption of any given therapy is often impeded by insufficient evidence of the effectiveness of such treatment. Objective. This study aimed to assess the direct medical cost of treating SUD in two tertiary hospitals in South-West, Nigeria. Methods. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey of patients managed for SUD at the two psychiatric hospitals was carried out between January and June 2020. The inclusion criteria were patients with SUD above 18 years of age, registered and managed at the two hospitals. Data were collected from selected patients' case notes using a standardized data collection tool and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results. The average costs of treatment for alcohol use disorder, drug use disorder, and drug and alcohol use disorder were ₦146,425.38 ± 57,388.84, ₦135,282.09 ± 53,190.39, and ₦143,877.33 ± 68,662.04, respectively. This translates to $384.82, $355.53, and $378.12, respectively. The highest contributors to SUD treatment cost are inpatient admissions and the cost of medicines; inpatient admissions include accommodation, feeding, and laundry. Conclusion. Considering that over 60% of the Nigerian population lives below the poverty line, the direct cost of SUD treatment is unaffordable to the patients and the health care system, which is grossly underfunded.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Syed Mohamed Aljunid ◽  
Lama Al Bashir ◽  
Aniza Binti Ismail ◽  
Azimatun Noor Aizuddin ◽  
S. A. Zafirah Abdul Rashid ◽  

Abstract Background The decision to implement new vaccines should be supported by public health and economic evaluations. Therefore, this study was primarily designed to evaluate the economic impact of switching from partially combined vaccine (Pentaxim® plus hepatitis B) to fully combined vaccine (Hexaxim®) in the Malaysian National Immunization Program (NIP) and to investigate healthcare professionals (HCPs)’ and parents’/caregivers’ perceptions. Methods In this economic evaluation study, 22 primary healthcare centers were randomly selected in Malaysia between December 2019 and July 2020. The baseline immunization schedule includes switching from Pentaxim® (four doses) and hepatitis B (three doses) to Hexaxim® (four doses), whereas the alternative scheme includes switching from Pentaxim® (four doses) and hepatitis B (three doses) to Hexaxim® (four doses) and hepatitis B (one dose) administered at birth. Direct medical costs were extracted using a costing questionnaire and an observational time and motion chart. Direct non-medical (cost for transportation) and indirect costs (loss of productivity) were derived from parents’/caregivers’ questionnaire. Also, HCPs’ and parent’s/caregivers’ perceptions were investigated using structured questionnaires. Results The cost per dose of Pentaxim® plus hepatitis B vs. Hexaxim® for the baseline scheme was Malaysian ringgit (RM) 31.90 (7.7 United States dollar [USD]) vs. 17.10 (4.1 USD) for direct medical cost, RM 54.40 (13.1 USD) vs. RM 27.20 (6.6 USD) for direct non-medical cost, RM 221.33 (53.3 USD) vs. RM 110.66 (26.7 USD) for indirect cost, and RM 307.63 (74.2 USD) vs. RM 155.00 (37.4 USD) for societal (total) cost. A similar trend was observed for the alternative scheme. Compared with Pentaxim® plus hepatitis B, total cost savings per dose of Hexaxim® were RM 137.20 (33.1 USD) and RM 104.70 (25.2 USD) in the baseline and alternative scheme, respectively. Eighty-four percent of physicians and 95% of nurses supported the use of Hexaxim® in the NIP. The majority of parents/caregivers had a positive perception regarding Hexaxim® vaccine in various aspects. Conclusions Incorporation of Hexaxim® within Malaysian NIP is highly recommended because the use of Hexaxim® has demonstrated substantial direct and indirect cost savings for healthcare providers and parents/caregivers with a high percentage of positive perceptions, compared with Pentaxim® plus hepatitis B. Trial registration Not applicable.

I. S. Krysanov ◽  
V. S. Krysanova ◽  
V. Yu. Ermakova

Rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (RwNP) is a one of most common comorbidities in asthma and contrariwise and can lead to exacerbation of severe asthma (SA). Dupilumab is a perspective medicine for treatment of both, because it decreases exacerbations and prevents of a necessity of surgeon. Economics aspects of dupilumab treatment in RwNP + SA are not examined yet. Thus aim of this study was evaluation of social-economic burden of RwNP + SA in the Russian Federation and dupilumab influence on it. Materials and methods. Direct medical (cost of medicines, treatment in outpatients department and in hospital, including surgery and rate of exacerbations per year) and non-medical (payment for temporary and stable disability) and indirect costs (GDP loses) in RwNP + SA patients have been evaluated. Medical cure of a patient with RwNP + SA was created according to survey of experts from different regions of Russia. Modelling of expenditures was prepared on all calculated cohort of potential patients with RwNP + SA from “State” position and growing approach. Results. Expenditures for cure of one patient with RwNP were as 234 217,71 RUR/year. Weighted average costs for one patient with RwNP + SA were 1 881 883,39 RUR, and mostly were associated with indirect costs. Dupilumab can decrease expenditures for one patient with RwNP + SA till 1 593 162,87 RUR (on 15,3 %) annually. Potential cohort with RwNP + SA has been estimated above 39 thousand patients. Total economic burden of RwNP + SA in Russia were estimated as 1,7 bln RUR. Dupilumab usage in patients with RwNP + SA fixed in Register can help decrease economic burden on 259 mln RUR annually. Hidden economic burden of comorbidity can reach 73,4 bln RUR (for all calculated / modelled cohort of patients with RwNP + SA), dupilumab saves 11,3 bln RUR annually in this scenario. Conclusion. Comorbid pathology — RwNP+SA has a sufficient social-economic burden in Russia, that could be decreased by modern biologic drugs, in particular, with dupilumab.

Susi Ari Kristina ◽  
Dwi Endarti ◽  
Hardika Aditama ◽  
Nada Nisrina Salsabila

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Jackleen Azer Abd El-Halim ◽  
Gihan Ismael Gewaifel ◽  
Eman Ahmed Fawzy Darwish ◽  
Ahmed Maher Ramadan ◽  
Gihan Hamdy ElSisi

Abstract Introduction Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is associated with many serious clinical and social consequences. Despite Egypt being classified as a country of low endemicity, the infection is associated with a 15–25% risk of premature death from liver cancer or end-stage liver disease. The national committee of treatment and control of viral hepatitis has already offered a high-quality service for the diagnosis and treatment of CHB on a free basis. The current study aims to estimate the health care resources utilization and the annual direct medical cost associated with different clinical stages of CHB-related disease in Egypt. Methodology The data was retrieved through record review for three months in the General Administration of Hepatitis Viruses Control, Egypt. Then, the data was extrapolated to the population level by multiplying the prevalence in Egypt with a focus on the productive age groups (25–59 years). Results The cost and utilization of different health care resources increase with disease progression. The total annual direct medical costs due to CHB in Egypt is 21.3 L.E. Billion (4.7 Int$ billion/year) for the management of estimated 1,420,700 CHB patients. The direct medical costs among the productive age group (25–59 years) constitute more than half of the total cost (57%). The highest disease burden is encountered among (25–29 years) age group; 2.695 L.E. billion (0.59 Int$ billion/year). Despite liver transplantation phase being associated with the highest annual cost/patient, the number of patients in this stage is the lowest. Then, it only constitutes 0.04% of the disease direct medical cost in the country. The chronic hepatitis clinical stage constitutes 57.26% of the disease direct medical cost in Egypt’s working age group. Conclusion Strengthening the preventive and control measures is mandatory to alleviate the disease’s direct medical costs. Close monitoring of the chronic hepatitis stage is mandatory to prevent disease progression. Enhancement of vaccination efforts will lower the disease prevalence and its cost. The universal health insurance system which is gradually implemented in Egypt nowadays will be a cornerstone in relieving the economic stresses by allowing more access to high-quality health care services.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Leonardo Ruiz-Casas ◽  
Jonathan Evans ◽  
Alison Rose ◽  
Gabriel Ghizzi Pedra ◽  
Alan Lobo ◽  

Abstract Background Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease with increasing prevalence worldwide. Current treatment strategies place considerable economic and humanistic burdens on patients. The aim of this study was to determine the socioeconomic burden of UC in adult patients in European countries in a real-world setting. Methods In this retrospective, cross-sectional and observational pan-European study, patients with moderate or severe UC were assigned to ARM 1 and patients who had moderate or severe UC but achieved mild or remission status 12 months before index date (or clinical consultation date), were assigned to ARM 2. Clinical and medical resource use data were collected via electronic case report forms, and data on non-medical and indirect costs, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were collected via patient and public involvement and engagement (PPIE) questionnaires. Per-patient annual total costs per ARM and per country were calculated using the collated resource use in the last 12 months (between the start of the documentation period and patient consultation or index date) and country specific unit costs. Quality of life was described by arm and by country. Results In the physician-reported eCRF population (n = 2966), the mean annual direct medical cost was €4065 in ARM 1 (n = 1835) and €2935 in ARM 2 (n = 1131). In the PPIE population (ARM 1, n = 1001; ARM 2, n = 647), mean annual direct cost was €4526 in ARM 1 and €3057 in ARM 2, mean annual direct non-medical cost was €1162 in ARM 1 and €1002 in ARM 2, mean annual indirect cost was €3098 in ARM 1 and €2309 ARM 2, and mean annual total cost was in €8787 in ARM 1 and €6368 in ARM 2. HRQoL scores showed moderate to high burden of UC in both groups. Conclusions The cost and HRQoL burden were high in patients in both ARM 1 and ARM 2 indicating unmet needs in the UC active population.

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Xavier Sánchez Choez ◽  
María Loaiza Martínez ◽  
Viviana Vaca Tatamuez ◽  
Marco López Peña ◽  
Andrea Manzano Pasquel ◽  

2021 ◽  
Grace Yang ◽  
Inna Cintina ◽  
Anne Pariser ◽  
Elisabeth Oehrlein ◽  
Jamie Sullivan ◽  

Abstract Background: To provide a comprehensive assessment of the total economic burden of rare diseases (RD) in the U.S. in 2019.We followed a prevalence-based approach that combined the prevalence of 379 RDs with the per-capita direct medical and indirect costs, to derive the national economic burden by patient age and type of RD. To estimate prevalence and the direct medical cost of RD, we used claims data from three sources: Medicare 5% Standard Analytical File, Transformed Medicaid Statistical Information System, and Optum claims data for the privately insured. To estimate indirect and non-medical cost components, we worked with the rare disease community to design and implement a primary survey.Results: There were an estimated 15.5 million U.S. children (N=1,322,886) and adults (N=14,222,299) with any of the 379 RDs in 2019 with a total economic burden of $997 billion, including a direct medical cost of $449 billion (45%), $437 billion (44%) in indirect costs, and $111 billion (11%) in non-medical costs. The top drivers for excess medical costs associated with RD are hospital inpatient care and prescription medication; the top indirect cost categories are labor market productivity losses due to absenteeism, presenteeism, and forced early retirement.Conclusions: Our findings highlight the scale of the RD economic burden and call for immediate attention from the scientific communities, policy leaders, and other key stakeholders such as health care providers and employers, to think innovatively and collectively, to identify new ways to help improve the care, management, and treatment of these often-devastating diseases.

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