Abstract Excessive intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as, diclofenac sodium (DS) may lead to toxicity in the rats. In this work, we aimed to examine the protective impact of lentil extract (LE) and folic acid (FA) on the hematological markers, the kidney tissue oxidative stress and the renal function against diclofenac sodium (DS) in male albino rats. The rats (120-150 g) were divided into four equal groups randomly, the first group kept as the untreated control. The second group was administrated with DS (11.6 mg/kg b.wt. orally once/day). The third group was received DS+FA (11.6 mg/kg b.wt.+76.9 microgram/kg b.wt.) orally once/day. The fourth group was treated with DS+LE (11.6 mg/kg b.wt.+500 mg/kg b.wt.) orally once/day. After four weeks, the results revealed that DS produced a significant decrease in the values of red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (HCT) and white blood cells (WBCs). On the other hand, there was a significant increase in the platelets count. Also, DS induced a renal deterioration; this was evidenced by the significant increase in the serum levels of urea, creatinine, uric acid, Na, Ca, Mg as well as the nitric oxide (NO) level in the kidney tissue. Also, there were a significant reduction in the serum levels of potassium (K) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the kidney homogenates. Moreover, the findings in the rats treated by DS+LE or DS+FA showed a potential protection on the hematological markers, oxidative stress in the kidney tissue and the renal function disturbed by DS. LE and FA could play a potent role for the prevention the adverse hematological, the kidney tissue oxidative stress and the renal dysfunction caused by DS via their anti-oxidative and bioactive phytochemicals.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system of unknown etiology. We tested the hypothesis that MS is caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in a cohort comprising more than 10 million young adults on active duty in the US military, 955 of whom were diagnosed with MS during their period of service. Risk of MS increased 32-fold after infection with EBV but was not increased after infection with other viruses, including the similarly transmitted cytomegalovirus. Serum levels of neurofilament light chain, a biomarker of neuroaxonal degeneration, increased only after EBV seroconversion. These findings cannot be explained by any known risk factor for MS and suggest EBV as the leading cause of MS.
Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) is an adipokine involved in bone and energy metabolism. Its serum levels correlate with bone mechanical unloading and inflammation, two conditions representing hallmarks of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Therefore, we investigated the role of Lcn2 in bone loss induced by muscle failure in the MDX mouse model of DMD. We found increased Lcn2 serum levels in MDX mice at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Consistently, Lcn2 mRNA was higher in MDX versus WT muscles. Immunohistochemistry showed Lcn2 expression in mononuclear cells between muscle fibres and in muscle fibres, thus confirming the gene expression results. We then ablated Lcn2 in MDX mice, breeding them with Lcn2−/− mice (MDXxLcn2−/−), resulting in a higher percentage of trabecular volume/total tissue volume compared to MDX mice, likely due to reduced bone resorption. Moreover, MDXxLcn2−/− mice presented with higher grip strength, increased intact muscle fibres, and reduced serum creatine kinase levels compared to MDX. Consistently, blocking Lcn2 by treating 2-month-old MDX mice with an anti-Lcn2 monoclonal antibody (Lcn2Ab) increased trabecular volume, while reducing osteoclast surface/bone surface compared to MDX mice treated with irrelevant IgG. Grip force was also increased, and diaphragm fibrosis was reduced by the Lcn2Ab. These results suggest that Lcn2 could be a possible therapeutic target to treat DMD-induced bone loss.
Neuroinflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of West syndrome (WS). Inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β(IL-1β), have been reported to be associated with epilepsy. However, the assessment of cytokine changes in humans is not always simple or deterministic. This study aimed to elucidate the immunological mechanism of WS. We examined the intracellular cytokine profiles of peripheral blood cells collected from 13 patients with WS, using flow cytometry, and measured their serum cytokine levels. These were compared with those of 10 age-matched controls. We found that the WS group had significantly higher percentages of inter IL-1β, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA)-positive monocytes, and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in their CD8+ T cells than the control group. Interestingly, the group with sequelae revealed significantly lower levels of intracellular IFN-γ and IL-6 in their CD8+ T and CD4+ T cells, respectively, than the group without sequelae. There was no correlation between the ratios of positive cells and the serum levels of a particular cytokine in the WS patients. These cytokines in the peripheral immune cells might be involved in the neuroinflammation of WS, even in the absence of infectious or immune disease. Overall, an immunological approach using flow cytometry analysis might be useful for immunological studies of epilepsy.
The ovulatory cycle has a significant influence on the microbial composition, according to the action of estrogen and progesterone on the stratified squamous epithelium, due to an increase in epithelial thickness, glycogen deposition, and influence on local immunology. The 16S rRNA gene amplification and pyrosequencing study demonstrated that healthy women have community state types (CST), classified as; type “L,” with a predominance of Lactobacillus crispatus, type II, with a predominance of Lactobacillus gasseri, type III, where Lactobacillus iners predominates, and type V with a predominance of Lactobacillus jensenii. Type IV does not identify lactobacilli but a heterogeneous population of bacteria. There seems to be a relationship between increased vaginal bacterial diversity and poverty of lactobacilli with the complaining of vaginal dryness. With menopause, there appears to be a reduction in lactobacilli associated with higher serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and lower estrogen levels. The evaluation of Gram-stained vaginal smears in postmenopause women must take into account the clinical-laboratory correlation. We should observe two meanly possibilities, atrophy with few bacterial morphotypes, without inflammatory, infiltrate (atrophy without inflammation), and atrophy with evident inflammatory infiltrate (atrophy with inflammation or atrophic vaginitis). The relationship between the microbiome and postmenopausal vulvovaginal symptoms seems to be related to the bacterial vaginal population. However, more robust studies are needed to confirm this impression.
CA125 is the best available yet insufficiently sensitive biomarker for early detection of ovarian cancer. There is a need to identify novel biomarkers, which individually or in combination with CA125 can achieve adequate sensitivity and specificity for the detection of earlier-stage ovarian cancer.
In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, we measured serum levels of 92 preselected proteins for 91 women who had blood sampled ≤18 months prior to ovarian cancer diagnosis, and 182 matched controls. We evaluated the discriminatory performance of the proteins as potential early diagnostic biomarkers of ovarian cancer.
Nine of the 92 markers; CA125, HE4, FOLR1, KLK11, WISP1, MDK, CXCL13, MSLN and ADAM8 showed an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of ≥0.70 for discriminating between women diagnosed with ovarian cancer and women who remained cancer-free. All, except ADAM8, had shown at least equal discrimination in previous case-control comparisons. The discrimination of the biomarkers, however, was low for the lag-time of >9–18 months and paired combinations of CA125 with any of the 8 markers did not improve discrimination compared to CA125 alone.
Using pre-diagnostic serum samples, this study identified markers with good discrimination for the lag-time of 0–9 months. However, the discrimination was low in blood samples collected more than 9 months prior to diagnosis, and none of the markers showed major improvement in discrimination when added to CA125.
The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, represents a global crisis. Most patients developed mild/moderate symptoms, and the status of immune system varied in acute and regulatory stages. The crosstalk between immune cells and the dynamic changes of immune cell contact is rarely described. Here, we analyzed the features of immune response of paired peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples from the same patients during acute and regulatory stages. Consistent with previous reports, both myeloid and T cells turned less inflammatory and less activated at recovery phase. Additionally, the communication patterns of myeloid-T cell and T-B cell are obviously changed. The crosstalk analysis reveals that typical inflammatory cytokines and several chemokines are tightly correlated with the recovery of COVID-19. Intriguingly, the signal transduction of metabolic factor insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is altered at recovery phase. Furthermore, we confirmed that the serum levels of IGF1 and several inflammatory cytokines are apparently dampened after the negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Thus, these results reveal several potential detection and therapeutic targets that might be used for COVID-19 recovery.
Objectives. Hypertension (HTN) is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Despite advances in treatment and control of HTN, the prevalence of HTN is still increasing. MitoQ is a supplement that acts on mitochondria and attenuates reactive oxygen species (ROS), which plays an important role in cardiovascular health. miRNAs play an important role in the pathophysiology of HTN. We evaluated the effects of MitoQ supplementation and endurance training (ET), alone and in combination, on functional indices of the heart and serum levels of miR-126, miR-27a, antioxidants, and NO, in patients with HTN. Methods. In a double-blind randomized clinical trial, 52 male participants (age 40-55 years) were randomly divided into four groups (
) of placebo, MitoQ (20 mg/day, oral), ET (cycle ergometer, moderate intensity, 40-60% VO2 peak, heart rate 120-140 b/min, 45 min a day, three days/week for six weeks), and MitoQ+ET. Cardiac function indices were assessed by echocardiography before and after interventions. Results. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) significantly decreased in all intervention groups (
) while DBP (
) and LV hypertrophy (
) were significantly decreased only in the MitoQ+ET group. Serum levels of SOD, GPx, and NO and the level of miR-126 significantly increased in all treatment groups, while miR-27a reduced in the ET (
) and MitoQ+ET (
) groups. Conclusions. Compared to MitoQ and ET alone, their combination has more prominent improving effects on cardiac health and amelioration of BP in the patients with HTN. These effects are through miR-126 and miR-27a modulation and ameliorating mitochondrial ROS production.