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Cureus ◽  
2022 ◽  
Faten A Al Majed ◽  
Fatemah T Al Shamlan ◽  
Mohammed A Alawazem ◽  
Hussain H Alsadah ◽  
Hossain S Al Beshri ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Margaret Ilomuanya ◽  
Ogochukwu Amaeze ◽  
Chinenye Umeche ◽  
Ugochukwu Mbata ◽  
Omonike Shonekan ◽  

Introduction. Successful interventions for substance use disorders (SUDs), though obtainable, are not effectively utilized due to the high cost of treatment. The adoption of any given therapy is often impeded by insufficient evidence of the effectiveness of such treatment. Objective. This study aimed to assess the direct medical cost of treating SUD in two tertiary hospitals in South-West, Nigeria. Methods. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey of patients managed for SUD at the two psychiatric hospitals was carried out between January and June 2020. The inclusion criteria were patients with SUD above 18 years of age, registered and managed at the two hospitals. Data were collected from selected patients' case notes using a standardized data collection tool and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results. The average costs of treatment for alcohol use disorder, drug use disorder, and drug and alcohol use disorder were ₦146,425.38 ± 57,388.84, ₦135,282.09 ± 53,190.39, and ₦143,877.33 ± 68,662.04, respectively. This translates to $384.82, $355.53, and $378.12, respectively. The highest contributors to SUD treatment cost are inpatient admissions and the cost of medicines; inpatient admissions include accommodation, feeding, and laundry. Conclusion. Considering that over 60% of the Nigerian population lives below the poverty line, the direct cost of SUD treatment is unaffordable to the patients and the health care system, which is grossly underfunded.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 99
Haya Nassar ◽  
Rana Abu-Farha ◽  
Muna Barakat ◽  
Eman Alefishat

This study aimed to evaluate health professionals’ perceptions regarding the level of implementation of the Antimicrobials Stewardship (AMS) programs in Jordanian tertiary hospitals and to assess the perceived barriers to its implementation. During this cross-sectional study, a total of 157 healthcare providers agreed to participate (response rate 96.3%). Participants were asked to complete an electronic survey after meeting them at their working sites. Only 43.9% of the healthcare providers (n = 69) reported having an AMS committee in their hospital settings. The results suggested that private hospitals have significantly better AMS implementation compared to public hospitals among four areas (p ≤ 0.05). Moreover, the results showed that the most widely available strategies to implement AMS were infectious disease/microbiology advice (n = 112, 71.3%), and treatment guidelines (n = 111, 70.7%). Additionally, the study revealed that the main barrier to AMS implementation was the lack of information technology support (n = 125, 79.6%). These findings could draw managers’ attention to the importance of AMS and support the health care provider’s practice of AMS in Jordanian tertiary hospitals by making the right decisions and the required modifications regarding the strategies needed for the implementation of AMS programs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Arinze Duke George Nwosu ◽  
Edmund Ndudi Ossai ◽  
Fidelis Anayo Onyekwulu ◽  
Adaobi Obianuju Amucheazi ◽  
Richard Ewah ◽  

Abstract Background Tracheal tubes are routinely used during anaesthesia and in the intensive care unit. Subjective monitoring of cuff pressures have been reported to produce consistently inappropriate cuffs pressures, with attendant morbidity. But this practice of unsafe care remains widespread. With the proliferation of intensive care units in Nigeria and increasing access to surgery, morbidity relating to improper tracheal cuff pressure may assume a greater toll. We aimed to evaluate current knowledge and practice of tracheal cuff pressure monitoring among anaesthesia and critical care providers in Nigeria. Methods This was a multicenter cross-sectional study conducted from March 18 to April 30, 2021. The first part (A) was conducted at 4 tertiary referral hospitals in Nigeria by means of a self-administered questionnaire on the various cadre of anaesthesia and critical care providers. The second part (B) was a nation-wide telephone survey of anaesthesia faculty fellows affiliated to 13 tertiary hospitals in Nigeria, selected by stratified random sampling. Results Only 3.1% (6/196) of the care providers admitted having ever used a tracheal cuff manometer, while 31.1% knew the recommended tracheal cuff pressure. The nationwide telephone survey of anaesthesia faculty fellows revealed that tracheal cuff manometer is neither available, nor has it ever been used in any of the 13 tertiary hospitals surveyed. The ‘Pilot balloon palpation method’ and ‘fixed volume of air from a syringe’ were the most commonly utilized method of cuff pressure estimation by the care providers, at 64.3% and 28.1% respectively in part A survey (84.6% and 15.4% respectively, in the part B survey). Conclusion The use of tracheal cuff manometer is very limited among the care providers surveyed in this study. Knowledge regarding tracheal cuff management among the providers is adjudged to be fair, despite the poor practice and unsafe care.

2022 ◽  
Naima Said Sheikh ◽  
Abdi Gele

Abstract Background: Motivated health workers play an important role in delivering high-quality maternal health services, especially in low-income countries where maternal mortality rates are high, and shortages of human resource for health is prevalent. The aim of this study is to investigate the motivation of maternal health workers in three tertiary hospitals in Mogadishu Somalia. Method: To investigate health worker motivation in Somalia, we used a semi-structured questionnaire that was validated and widely used in Sub-Saharan Africa. Data were collected from 220 health workers across three tertiary hospitals in Mogadishu between February and April 2020. Health worker motivation was measured using seven constructs: general motivation, burnout, job satisfaction, intrinsic job satisfaction, organizational commitment, conscientiousness, timeliness and attendance. A multivariate regression analysis was performed to determine the predictors of health worker motivation. Results: The study found that male health workers have a higher work motivation, with a mean score of 92.75 (SD 21.31) versus 90.43 (SD 21.61) in women. A significant correlation was found between health workers motivation and being an assistant, nurse, physician, pediatric-assistant, midwife, supervisor and pharmacist. Unexpectedly, the gynecologists and midwives were the least motivated groups among the different professions, with mean scores of 83.63, (SD: 27.41) and 86.95 (SD: 21.08), respectively. Of the aforementioned seven motivation constructs, the highest mean motivation scores (from 1-5) were observed in conscientiousness and intrinsic job satisfaction. Conclusion: The results highlight the importance of targeted interventions that increase the motivation of female health workers, particularly gynecologists and midwives in Somalia. This can be done by providing non-financial incentives, in addition to encouraging their participation in the decision-making process. Further research is needed to investigate the effect of a lack of motivation among gynecologists and midwives on maternal health in Somalia.

2022 ◽  
Mohammad Eslami ◽  
Vahid Falahati ◽  
Soheila siroosbakht ◽  
Mahdi Nikoohemmat ◽  
Nahid Arabi

Abstract Introduction: Leukemias are involving the bone marrow and the soft tissues in inner parts of the bones, where new blood cells are formed. This malignancy is the most common pediatric cancer, which its etiologic causes are not well understood. This multifactorial disease is believed to linked with genetic and non-hereditary environmental factors. Cytogenic analyses of chromosomal abnormalities provide diagnostic and prognostic values in leukemia patients. Given the high prevalence of viral diseases and clinical suspicions on the relationship between certain viral infections and leukemia, it is necessary to investigate this possible relationship, especially in third-world countries. The present study recruited 65 children with leukemia (AML, CML, or ALL) who were presented to two tertiary hospitals. At first, all the patients underwent testing for HBV, HCV, CMV, EBV, and HIV. Bone marrow specimens were studied for identifying possible chromosomal abnormalities in cytogenic investigations. According to our findings, there was a relationship between incidence of leukemia, the 12:21 chromosomal translocation and CMV infection. Therefore, preventing CMV infection can lead to a reduced incidence of leukemia. It is expected that the findings of this study enlighten the scientists to conduct more extensive research on the relationship between viral diseases and leukemia in third-world countries.Method:The present study recruited 65 children with leukemia (AML, CML, or ALL) who were presented to two tertiary hospitals. At first, all the patients underwent testing forHBV, HCV, CMV, EBV, and HIV. Bone marrow specimens were studied for identifying possible chromosomal abnormalities in cytogenic investigations.Result:According to our findings,there was a relationship between the incidence of leukemia,the 12:21 chromosomal translocation, and CMV infection.Therefore, preventing CMV infection can lead to a reducedincidence of leukemia.Conclusion:In this study, we demonstrated that leukemia is relevant to the 12:21 chromosomal translocation and CMV virus infections, So the reduction in leukemia prevalence is dependent on the prevention of CMV disease. It is expected that the findings ofthis studyenlighten the scientists to conduct more extensive researchon the relationship between viral diseasesand leukemia in third-world countries.Trial registrations:Clinical trial registration code:IR.AJAUMS.REC.1399.161Evaluated by: AJA UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCESApproval Date:2020-11-15Approval statement: The project was found to be in accordance with the ethical principles and the national norms and standards for conducting Medical Research in Iran.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 ◽  
Pradeep Ashokcoomar ◽  
Raisuyah Bhagwan

Background: Neonatal care is provided by various levels of healthcare facilities in South Africa. Intensive care for neonates is only provided at the higher levels, hence the need for transfers from lower-level to higher-level facilities (e.g. primary hospitals to tertiary hospitals) or across levels of facilities, particularly when life-threatening situations arise (e.g. cardiac deterioration, respiratory deterioration and desaturation).Aim: The aim of the study was to explore neonatologists’ views regarding the neonatal transfer process and to describe the preparedness of advanced life support (ALS) paramedics to undertake such transfers.Setting: The setting consisted of neonatologists from three provinces i.e. KwaZulu-Natal, Gauteng and Western cape.Method: A qualitative descriptive design was utilised in this study. Semistructured interviews were conducted on the public health hospitals in three provinces (N = 9; n = 3) with neonatologists (N = 7; n = 7) who were involved in the transfers of critically ill neonates. The process of thematic analysis was used.Results: The themes that emerged in this study were: an awareness of local contextual realities related to neonatal transfers, challenges evident within the context of neonatal transfers, decision-making around the transfer of ill neonates, ALS paramedic preparedness for transfers and good clinical governanceConclusion: The study found that there was a need to be aware of local contextual realities confronting neonatal transfers, a need for greater preparedness for paramedics to undertake these transfers, a need for a sound referral processes and a need for coordinated transfer effort between paramedics, hospital staff and transport team members for the successful transfer of critically ill neonates.Contribution: The findings highlight the challenges confronting the neonatal transfer process in South Africa through the lens of neonatologist at public hospitals. Hence, the study reinforces the preparedness and coordination of the transfer process, along with more efficient communication between paramedics, hospital staff and the transfer team.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (1) ◽  
pp. 51-58
Sathi Binte Ali ◽  
Mohammad Asraful Alam

Background: To assess the health care facilities provided for senior citizens in selected tertiary hospitals. Methods: This descriptive type of cross-sectional study was carried out among service providers (doctors and nurses) and hospital administrators within the period of January to December 2020. A total of 305 respondents was selected purposively. Semi structured questionnaire and observational checklist was used to collect data. Data was collected by face to face interview and observation. Data was analyzed by using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) software version 25. Results: Among participants, Administrator 2.6%, Doctor 25.2% and Nurse 72.1%. Mean age of the respondents was 32.72±7.67 years. Most of the respondents 90.8% working experience less than 10 years and their average monthly income was Tk. 35398.90±16509.12. In DMCH separate geriatric ward present but in BSMMU geriatric ward absent. Rehabilitation center & long-term care facilities for elderly patients, telemedicine service, separation facility for non COVID geriatric patients from COVID positive patients, free care facility for poor elderly patients, social welfare support facilities present in both hospitals. Separate bed facility in general wards, geriatric ICU and COVID ward absent, training facility on geriatric health absent in both hospitals. Majority of the respondents 97.0% take consent before any procedure, 89.6% service provider involve geriatric patients in decision making about their care and treatment, 56.6% respondents follow polypharmacy guideline. Opinion regarding utility service was average. Opinion regarding diagnostic facilities, essential drugs, sterilization facilities, of this hospital for senior citizens was moderately sufficient 50.5%, 60.6% and 59.3% respectively and ambulance service insufficient 53.4%. Among respondents 89.8% face barriers in providing geriatric health care. Opinion regarding the existing health care facilities for senior citizens of this hospitals insufficient 52.8%. Regarding improvement of health care services 26.0% mentioned that training of doctor/ nurses followed by separate geriatric ward facilities for geriatric patients 20.8%, increase the number of supporting staff 16.2%, free health care facilities for poor elderly patients 11.8%, training of supporting staffs 10.6%, training for informal/family caregiver 7.4%, separate bed for geriatric patient in general wards 6.4% and the rest others mentioned 0.7%. Analysis found statistically significant association between national guideline follow for the treatment and care of older patients and their educational qualification (0.001), designation (p=0.001), polypharmacy guideline follows for the treatment and care of older patients and their designation, referral guideline follows for geriatric patients and their designation (p=0.001). Conclusion: To provide quality healthcare service to the senior citizens of Bangladesh, geriatric health care should be given highest priority. JOPSOM 2021; 40(1): 51-58

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 306
Yun Jung Choi ◽  
Eun Hee Chung ◽  
Eun Lee ◽  
Chul-Hong Kim ◽  
Yong Ju Lee ◽  

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major causative pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia in children, and the treatment of choice is macrolides. There is an increasing trend in reports of refractory clinical responses despite macrolide treatment due to the emergence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae. Early discrimination of macrolide-refractory M. pneumoniae pneumonia (MrMP) from macrolide-sensitive M. pneumoniae pneumonia (MSMP) is vital; however, testing for macrolide susceptibility at the time of admission is not feasible. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of MrMP in Korean children, in comparison with those of MSMP. In this multicenter study, board-certified pediatric pulmonologists at 22 tertiary hospitals reviewed the medical records from 2010 to 2015 of 5294 children who were hospitalized with M. pneumoniae pneumonia and administered macrolides as the initial treatment. One-way analysis of variance and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used to compare differences between groups. Of 5294 patients (mean age, 5.6 years) included in this analysis, 240 (4.5%), 925 (17.5%), and 4129 (78.0%) had MrMP, macrolide-less effective M. pneumoniae pneumonia, and MSMP, respectively. Compared with the MSMP group, the MrMP group had a longer fever duration, overall (13.0 days) and after macrolide use (8.0 days). A higher proportion of MrMP patients had respiratory distress, pleural effusion, and lobar pneumonia. The mean aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and C-reactive protein levels were the highest in the MrMP group, along with higher incidences of extrapulmonary manifestations and atelectasis (during and post infection). Pre-existing conditions were present in 17.4% (n = 725/4159) of patients, with asthma being the most common (n = 334/4811, 6.9%). This study verified that MrMP patients show more severe initial radiographic findings and clinical courses than MSMP patients. MrMP should be promptly managed by agents other than macrolides.

Dinh Hung Vu ◽  
Bui Hai Hoang ◽  
Ngoc Son Do ◽  
Giang Phuc Do ◽  
Xuan Dung Dao ◽  

Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was to determine why bystanders did not use formal Emergency Medical Services (EMS) or conduct cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on the scene for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients in Hanoi, Vietnam. Methods: This was a prospective, observational study of OHCA patients admitted to five tertiary hospitals in the Hanoi area from June 2018 through January 2019. The data were collected through interviews (using a structured questionnaire) with bystanders. Results: Of the 101 patients, 79% were aged <65 years, 71% were men, 79% were witnessed to collapse, 36% were transported to the hospital by formal EMS, and 16% received bystander CPR at the scene. The most frequently indicated reason for not using EMS by the attendants was “using a private vehicle or taxi is faster” (85%). The reasons bystanders did not conduct CPR at the scene included “not recognizing the ailment as cardiac arrest” (60%), “not knowing how to perform CPR” (33%), and “being afraid of doing harm to patients” (7%). Only seven percent of the bystanders had been trained in CPR. Conclusion: The information revealed in this study provides useful information to indicate what to do to increase EMS use and CPR provision. Spreading awareness and training among community members regarding EMS roles, recognition of cardiac arrest, CPR skills, and dispatcher training to assist bystanders are crucial to improve the outcomes of OHCA patients in Vietnam.

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