direct medical cost
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2022 ◽  
Vol 28 ◽  
pp. 82-89
Budi Hidayat ◽  
Royasia Viki Ramadani ◽  
Achmad Rudijanto ◽  
Pradana Soewondo ◽  
Ketut Suastika ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Margaret Ilomuanya ◽  
Ogochukwu Amaeze ◽  
Chinenye Umeche ◽  
Ugochukwu Mbata ◽  
Omonike Shonekan ◽  

Introduction. Successful interventions for substance use disorders (SUDs), though obtainable, are not effectively utilized due to the high cost of treatment. The adoption of any given therapy is often impeded by insufficient evidence of the effectiveness of such treatment. Objective. This study aimed to assess the direct medical cost of treating SUD in two tertiary hospitals in South-West, Nigeria. Methods. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey of patients managed for SUD at the two psychiatric hospitals was carried out between January and June 2020. The inclusion criteria were patients with SUD above 18 years of age, registered and managed at the two hospitals. Data were collected from selected patients' case notes using a standardized data collection tool and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results. The average costs of treatment for alcohol use disorder, drug use disorder, and drug and alcohol use disorder were ₦146,425.38 ± 57,388.84, ₦135,282.09 ± 53,190.39, and ₦143,877.33 ± 68,662.04, respectively. This translates to $384.82, $355.53, and $378.12, respectively. The highest contributors to SUD treatment cost are inpatient admissions and the cost of medicines; inpatient admissions include accommodation, feeding, and laundry. Conclusion. Considering that over 60% of the Nigerian population lives below the poverty line, the direct cost of SUD treatment is unaffordable to the patients and the health care system, which is grossly underfunded.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Jackleen Azer Abd El-Halim ◽  
Gihan Ismael Gewaifel ◽  
Eman Ahmed Fawzy Darwish ◽  
Ahmed Maher Ramadan ◽  
Gihan Hamdy ElSisi

Abstract Introduction Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is associated with many serious clinical and social consequences. Despite Egypt being classified as a country of low endemicity, the infection is associated with a 15–25% risk of premature death from liver cancer or end-stage liver disease. The national committee of treatment and control of viral hepatitis has already offered a high-quality service for the diagnosis and treatment of CHB on a free basis. The current study aims to estimate the health care resources utilization and the annual direct medical cost associated with different clinical stages of CHB-related disease in Egypt. Methodology The data was retrieved through record review for three months in the General Administration of Hepatitis Viruses Control, Egypt. Then, the data was extrapolated to the population level by multiplying the prevalence in Egypt with a focus on the productive age groups (25–59 years). Results The cost and utilization of different health care resources increase with disease progression. The total annual direct medical costs due to CHB in Egypt is 21.3 L.E. Billion (4.7 Int$ billion/year) for the management of estimated 1,420,700 CHB patients. The direct medical costs among the productive age group (25–59 years) constitute more than half of the total cost (57%). The highest disease burden is encountered among (25–29 years) age group; 2.695 L.E. billion (0.59 Int$ billion/year). Despite liver transplantation phase being associated with the highest annual cost/patient, the number of patients in this stage is the lowest. Then, it only constitutes 0.04% of the disease direct medical cost in the country. The chronic hepatitis clinical stage constitutes 57.26% of the disease direct medical cost in Egypt’s working age group. Conclusion Strengthening the preventive and control measures is mandatory to alleviate the disease’s direct medical costs. Close monitoring of the chronic hepatitis stage is mandatory to prevent disease progression. Enhancement of vaccination efforts will lower the disease prevalence and its cost. The universal health insurance system which is gradually implemented in Egypt nowadays will be a cornerstone in relieving the economic stresses by allowing more access to high-quality health care services.

2021 ◽  
Grace Yang ◽  
Inna Cintina ◽  
Anne Pariser ◽  
Elisabeth Oehrlein ◽  
Jamie Sullivan ◽  

Abstract Background: To provide a comprehensive assessment of the total economic burden of rare diseases (RD) in the U.S. in 2019.We followed a prevalence-based approach that combined the prevalence of 379 RDs with the per-capita direct medical and indirect costs, to derive the national economic burden by patient age and type of RD. To estimate prevalence and the direct medical cost of RD, we used claims data from three sources: Medicare 5% Standard Analytical File, Transformed Medicaid Statistical Information System, and Optum claims data for the privately insured. To estimate indirect and non-medical cost components, we worked with the rare disease community to design and implement a primary survey.Results: There were an estimated 15.5 million U.S. children (N=1,322,886) and adults (N=14,222,299) with any of the 379 RDs in 2019 with a total economic burden of $997 billion, including a direct medical cost of $449 billion (45%), $437 billion (44%) in indirect costs, and $111 billion (11%) in non-medical costs. The top drivers for excess medical costs associated with RD are hospital inpatient care and prescription medication; the top indirect cost categories are labor market productivity losses due to absenteeism, presenteeism, and forced early retirement.Conclusions: Our findings highlight the scale of the RD economic burden and call for immediate attention from the scientific communities, policy leaders, and other key stakeholders such as health care providers and employers, to think innovatively and collectively, to identify new ways to help improve the care, management, and treatment of these often-devastating diseases.

2021 ◽  
Vol 102 (10) ◽  
pp. e32-e33
Vincy Chan ◽  
Mackenzie Hurst ◽  
Tierza Petersen ◽  
Jingqian Liu ◽  
Tatyana Mollayeva ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (10) ◽  
pp. 1118-1123
Shivakumar Iyer ◽  
Kamini N Reddy ◽  
Jignesh Shah ◽  
Monidipa Chowdhury ◽  
Naveen Yerrapalem ◽  

Bander Balkhi ◽  
Ahmed Alghamdi ◽  
Sulaiman Alqusair ◽  
Bader Alotaibi ◽  
Yazed AlRuthia ◽  

Osteoporosis and its complications are a major health concern in Saudi Arabia, and the prevalence of osteoporosis is on the rise. The aim of this study was to estimate the direct healthcare cost for patients with osteoporosis. A retrospective study was carried out among adult patients with osteoporosis in a teaching hospital in Saudi Arabia. A bottom-up approach was conducted to estimate the healthcare resources used and the total direct medical cost for the treatment of osteoporosis and related fractures. The study included 511 osteoporosis patients, 93% of whom were female. The average (SD) age was 68.5 years (10.2). The total mean direct medical costs for patients without fractures were USD 975.77 per person per year (PPPY), and for those with osteoporotic fractures, the total direct costs were USD 9716.26 PPPY, of which 56% of the costs were attributable to surgery procedures. Prior to fractures, the main cost components were medication, representing 61%, and physician visits, representing 18%. The findings of this study indicated the economic impact of osteoporosis and related fractures. With the aging population in Saudi Arabia, the burden of disease could increase significantly, which highlights the need for effective prevention strategies to minimize the economic burden of osteoporosis.

Ayogu Ebere Emilia ◽  
Mosanya Adaobi Uchenna ◽  
Onuh Jude Chidieber ◽  
Adibe Maxwell Ogochukwu ◽  
Ubaka Chukwuemeka Michael ◽  

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