substance use disorders
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 126 ◽  
pp. 107211
Anka A. Vujanovic ◽  
Heather E. Webber ◽  
Margaret C. Wardle ◽  
Charles E. Green ◽  
Scott D. Lane ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (1) ◽  
pp. 169-179
Samer El Hayek ◽  
Luna Geagea ◽  
Hussein El Bourji ◽  
Tamara Kadi ◽  
Farid Talih

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Margaret Ilomuanya ◽  
Ogochukwu Amaeze ◽  
Chinenye Umeche ◽  
Ugochukwu Mbata ◽  
Omonike Shonekan ◽  

Introduction. Successful interventions for substance use disorders (SUDs), though obtainable, are not effectively utilized due to the high cost of treatment. The adoption of any given therapy is often impeded by insufficient evidence of the effectiveness of such treatment. Objective. This study aimed to assess the direct medical cost of treating SUD in two tertiary hospitals in South-West, Nigeria. Methods. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey of patients managed for SUD at the two psychiatric hospitals was carried out between January and June 2020. The inclusion criteria were patients with SUD above 18 years of age, registered and managed at the two hospitals. Data were collected from selected patients' case notes using a standardized data collection tool and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results. The average costs of treatment for alcohol use disorder, drug use disorder, and drug and alcohol use disorder were ₦146,425.38 ± 57,388.84, ₦135,282.09 ± 53,190.39, and ₦143,877.33 ± 68,662.04, respectively. This translates to $384.82, $355.53, and $378.12, respectively. The highest contributors to SUD treatment cost are inpatient admissions and the cost of medicines; inpatient admissions include accommodation, feeding, and laundry. Conclusion. Considering that over 60% of the Nigerian population lives below the poverty line, the direct cost of SUD treatment is unaffordable to the patients and the health care system, which is grossly underfunded.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Charlotte Reedtz ◽  
Eva Jensaas ◽  
Trine Storjord ◽  
Kjersti Bergum Kristensen ◽  
Camilla Lauritzen

Background:According to amended legislation implemented in Norway in 2010, personnel in healthcare services for adults are obligated to identify patients' minor children and to assess the family situation. Health personnel is also obligated to contribute to adequate support to families affected by parental mental illness or substance use disorders. The intention behind the amendment was to support and protect children of mentally ill parents, as they are at risk of developing problems of their own. The aim of the present study was to evaluate health personnel's practice during the years 2010-2020, more specifically; (a) to what extent children of patients with mental illness and substance use disorders are registered in patient records, and (b) to what extent activities relating to the assessment and support of patients' minor children are documented in patient records.Method:The participants in the study are patients admitted to Division for Mental Health and Substance Use at the University Hospital of North Norway in the years 2010–2020. The data was drawn from patient records during October 2021.Results:The registration of patients' minor children is considerably strengthened since the introduction of the new Norwegian Health Personnel Act in 2010, and estimates show that 56% of patients' minor children are identified. However, only 31% of cases where patients have identified minor children this result in health personnel performing activities to support the children.Discussion:Based on the rising proportion of identified minor children throughout the 10-year period, it seems evident that the dissemination efforts have contributed to the development of some new skills among health personnel. However, compared with the national estimation that 35% of mentally ill and substance abusing patients have minor children, a large proportion of children remains unidentified. After identification, there seem to still be a long way to go before minor children are systematically offered support. Different solutions to strengthen the implementation of new skills in clinical practice, to ensure the identification of minor children and provision of necessary support for them is discussed.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Joar Guterstam ◽  
Nitya Jayaram-Lindström ◽  
Jonathan Berrebi ◽  
Predrag Petrovic ◽  
Martin Ingvar ◽  

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Exposure to conditioned cues is a common trigger of relapse in addiction. It has been suggested that such cues can activate motivationally relevant neurocircuitry in individuals with substance use disorders even without being consciously perceived. We aimed to see if this could be replicated in a sample with severe amphetamine use disorder and a control group of healthy subjects. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> We used fMRI to test the hypothesis that individuals with amphetamine use disorder, but not healthy controls, exhibit a specific neural reactivity to subliminally presented pictures related to amphetamine use. Twenty-four amphetamine users and 25 healthy controls were recruited and left data of sufficient quality to be included in the final analysis. All subjects were exposed to drug-related and neutral pictures of short duration (13.3 ms), followed by a backward visual mask image. The contrast of interest was drug versus neutral subliminal pictures. <b><i>Results:</i></b> There were no statistically significant differences in BOLD signal between the drug and neutral cues, neither in the limbic regions of primary interest nor in exploratory whole-brain analyses. The same results were found both in amphetamine users and controls. <b><i>Discussion/Conclusion:</i></b> We found no evidence of neural reactivity to subliminally presented drug cues in this sample of subjects with severe amphetamine dependence. These results are discussed in relation to the earlier literature, and the evidence for subliminal drug cue reactivity in substance use disorders is questioned.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Gary Peltz ◽  
Yalun Tan

The tremendous public health problem created by substance use disorders (SUDs) presents a major opportunity for mouse genetics. Inbred mouse strains exhibit substantial and heritable differences in their responses to drugs of abuse (DOA) and in many of the behaviors associated with susceptibility to SUD. Therefore, genetic discoveries emerging from analysis of murine genetic models can provide critically needed insight into the neurobiological effects of DOA, and they can reveal how genetic factors affect susceptibility drug addiction. There are already indications, emerging from our prior analyses of murine genetic models of responses related to SUDs that mouse genetic models of SUD can provide actionable information, which can lead to new approaches for alleviating SUDs. Lastly, we consider the features of murine genetic models that enable causative genetic factors to be successfully identified; and the methodologies that facilitate genetic discovery.

Ángel García-Pérez ◽  
Gema Aonso-Diego ◽  
Sara Weidberg ◽  
Roberto Secades-Villa

Abstract Rationale Reinforcer pathology (RP) is a theoretical model based on two processes: delay discounting (DD) and drug demand. Given that RP has been shown to have a predictive value on smoking behaviors, several studies have explored which interventions can reduce RP. Consistent with the RP framework, episodic future thinking (EFT) has shown effects on treatment outcomes and RP processes. The vast majority of studies that assess the effects of EFT on RP consist of experimental studies, and no previous research has tested these effects in a clinical sample of smokers. Objectives The primary aim of this study was to assess the effects of EFT on RP throughout the course of a smoking cessation intervention in smokers with substance use disorders (SUDs). Methods Participants were randomized to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) + EFT (n = 39) or CBT + EFT + contingency management (n = 33). Cotinine, frequency of EFT practices, cigarette purchase task (CPT), and DD were evaluated in treatment sessions. Mixed-effects model repeated measures analysis was used to explore DD and CPT in-treatment changes as a function of EFT practices and cotinine levels. Results Greater practice of the EFT component significantly reduced cigarette demand (p < .020) as well as DD (p = .003). Additionally, a greater reduction in cotinine levels coupled with greater EFT practice led to a greater decrease in cigarette demand (p < .014). Conclusions EFT reduced the two facets of RP in treatment-seeking smokers with SUDs.

2022 ◽  
Alexander S Hatoum ◽  
Sarah M.C. Colbert ◽  
Emma C Johnson ◽  
Spencer B. Huggett ◽  
Joseph D. Deak ◽  

Genetic liability to substance use disorders can be parsed into loci conferring general and substance-specific addiction risk. We report a multivariate genome-wide association study that disaggregates general and substance-specific loci for problematic alcohol use, problematic tobacco use, and cannabis and opioid use disorders in a sample of 1,025,550 individuals of European and 92,630 individuals of African descent. Nineteen loci were genome-wide significant for the general addiction risk factor (addiction-rf), which showed high polygenicity. Across ancestries PDE4B was significant (among others), suggesting dopamine regulation as a cross-trait vulnerability. The addiction-rf polygenic risk score was associated with substance use disorders, psychopathologies, somatic conditions, and environments associated with the onset of addictions. Substance-specific loci (9 for alcohol, 32 for tobacco, 5 for cannabis, 1 for opioids) included metabolic and receptor genes. These findings provide insight into the genetic architecture of general and substance-specific use disorder risk that may be leveraged as treatment targets.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Zoe Bourgault ◽  
Dafna Sara Rubin-Kahana ◽  
Ahmed Nabeel Hassan ◽  
Marcos Sanches ◽  
Bernard Le Foll

Polysubstance use is a growing public health concern that has been associated with poor clinical outcomes. Compared to single-drug users, this population suffers greater deficits in cognitive function, which hinder treatment success and recovery. Despite its high prevalence and poor prognosis, epidemiological research on polysubstance use and accompanying cognitive profile is lacking. We investigated associations between numbers of past-year co-occurring substance use disorders (SUDs) and self-reported cognitive function using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey for Alcohol and Related Conditions III (NESARC-III). Regression analyses revealed a significant negative association between cognitive scores and numbers of past-year SUDs, which was moderated by sex. After adjusting for confounding variables, greater numbers of SUDs were associated with declining self-reported cognitive function, and this relationship was stronger among females. Our findings expand on current literature on cognitive impairments among polysubstance users and provide a novel, nuanced description of this relationship among the general population. We highlight the need for targeted and individualized treatment approaches in order to improve outcomes in this population.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document