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Published By Springer-Verlag

1432-2072, 0033-3158

Adrian Hase ◽  
Max Erdmann ◽  
Verena Limbach ◽  
Gregor Hasler

Abstract Rationale and objectives Differences among psychedelic substances regarding their subjective experiences are clinically and scientifically interesting. Quantitative linguistic analysis is a powerful tool to examine such differences. This study compared five psychedelic substance report groups and a non-psychedelic report group on quantitative linguistic markers of psychological states and processes derived from recreational use-based online experience reports. Methods Using 2947 publicly available online reports, we compared Ayahuasca and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT, analyzed together), ketamine, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), psilocybin (mushroom), and antidepressant drug use experiences. We examined word frequencies related to various psychological states and processes and semantic proximity to psychedelic and mystical experience scales. Results Linguistic markers of psychological function indicated distinct effect profiles. For example, MDMA experience reports featured an emotionally intensifying profile accompanied by many cognitive process words and dynamic-personal language. In contrast, Ayahuasca and DMT experience reports involved relatively little emotional language, few cognitive process words, increased analytical thinking-associated language, and the most semantic similarity with psychedelic and mystical experience descriptions. LSD, psilocybin mushroom, and ketamine reports showed only small differences on the emotion-, analytical thinking-, psychedelic, and mystical experience-related language outcomes. Antidepressant reports featured more negative emotional and cognitive process-related words, fewer positive emotional and analytical thinking-related words, and were generally not similar to mystical and psychedelic language. Conclusion This article addresses an existing research gap regarding the comparison of different psychedelic drugs on linguistic profiles of psychological states, processes, and experiences. The large sample of experience reports involving multiple psychedelic drugs provides valuable information that would otherwise be difficult to obtain. The results could inform experimental research into psychedelic drug effects in healthy populations and clinical trials for psychedelic treatments of psychiatric problems.

Lívia Maria Bolsoni ◽  
José Alexandre S. Crippa ◽  
Jaime Eduardo Cecílio Hallak ◽  
Francisco Silveira Guimarães ◽  
Antonio Waldo Zuardi

Jing Huang ◽  
Jingmei Xiao ◽  
Zhuang Peng ◽  
Ping Shao ◽  
Mengxi Sun ◽  

Miriam Olivola ◽  
Serena Civardi ◽  
Stefano Damiani ◽  
Nicolo Cipriani ◽  
Andrea Silva ◽  

Caren Nádia Soares de Sousa ◽  
Ingridy da Silva Medeiros ◽  
Germana Silva Vasconcelos ◽  
Gabriel Angelo de Aquino ◽  
Francisco Maurício Sales Cysne Filho ◽  

Johanna A. S. Smeets ◽  
A. Maryse Minnaard ◽  
Geert M. J. Ramakers ◽  
Roger A. H. Adan ◽  
Louk J. M. J. Vanderschuren ◽  

Abstract Rationale Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a complex, heterogeneous disorder that only occurs in a minority of alcohol users. Various behavioral constructs, including excessive intake, habit formation, motivation for alcohol and resistance to punishment have been implicated in AUD, but their interrelatedness is unclear. Objective The aim of this study was therefore to explore the relation between these AUD-associated behavioral constructs in rats. We hypothesised that a subpopulation of animals could be identified that, based on these measures, display consistent AUD-like behavior. Methods Lister Hooded rats (n = 47) were characterised for alcohol consumption, habit formation, motivation for alcohol and quinine-adulterated alcohol consumption. The interrelation between these measures was evaluated through correlation and cluster analyses. In addition, addiction severity scores were computed using different combinations of the behavioral measures, to assess the consistency of the AUD-like subpopulation. Results We found that the data was uniformly distributed, as there was no significant tendency of the behavioral measures to cluster in the dataset. On the basis of multiple ranked addiction severity scores, five animals (~ 11%) were classified as displaying AUD-like behavior. The composition of the remaining subpopulation of animals with the highest addiction severity score (9 rats; ~ 19%) varied, depending on the combination of measures included. Conclusion Consistent AUD-like behavior was detected in a small proportion of alcohol drinking rats. Alcohol consumption, habit formation, motivation for alcohol and punishment resistance contribute in varying degrees to the AUD-like phenotype across the population. These findings emphasise the importance of considering the heterogeneity of AUD-like behavior.

Ángel García-Pérez ◽  
Gema Aonso-Diego ◽  
Sara Weidberg ◽  
Roberto Secades-Villa

Abstract Rationale Reinforcer pathology (RP) is a theoretical model based on two processes: delay discounting (DD) and drug demand. Given that RP has been shown to have a predictive value on smoking behaviors, several studies have explored which interventions can reduce RP. Consistent with the RP framework, episodic future thinking (EFT) has shown effects on treatment outcomes and RP processes. The vast majority of studies that assess the effects of EFT on RP consist of experimental studies, and no previous research has tested these effects in a clinical sample of smokers. Objectives The primary aim of this study was to assess the effects of EFT on RP throughout the course of a smoking cessation intervention in smokers with substance use disorders (SUDs). Methods Participants were randomized to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) + EFT (n = 39) or CBT + EFT + contingency management (n = 33). Cotinine, frequency of EFT practices, cigarette purchase task (CPT), and DD were evaluated in treatment sessions. Mixed-effects model repeated measures analysis was used to explore DD and CPT in-treatment changes as a function of EFT practices and cotinine levels. Results Greater practice of the EFT component significantly reduced cigarette demand (p < .020) as well as DD (p = .003). Additionally, a greater reduction in cotinine levels coupled with greater EFT practice led to a greater decrease in cigarette demand (p < .014). Conclusions EFT reduced the two facets of RP in treatment-seeking smokers with SUDs.

Janni Leung ◽  
Gary Chan ◽  
Daniel Stjepanović ◽  
Jack Yiu Chak Chung ◽  
Wayne Hall ◽  

Abstract Rationale There has been increasing attention on cannabis use for medical purposes, but there is currently a lack of data on its epidemiology. Objectives To examine the epidemiology of self-reported cannabis use for medical purposes by (1) estimating its prevalence, (2) comparing gender and age differences, and (3) investigating what reasons they were used to manage. Methods Participants included 27,169 respondents (aged 16–65) who completed Wave 1 of The International Cannabis Policy Study (ICPS) conducted across Canada and the USA in 2018 via online surveys. Cannabis policy conditions were “US legal–recreational” (legal for both recreational and medical uses), “US legal–medical only”, “US illegal”, and “Canada–medical only”. Results The overall prevalence of self-reported ever cannabis use for medical purposes was 27%, with similar rates by sex and the highest prevalence in young adults. Prevalence was higher in US legal–recreational states (34%) than US illegal states (23%), US legal–medical only states (25%), and Canada (25%). The most common physical health reasons include use to manage pain (53%), sleep (46%), headaches/migraines (35%), appetite (22%), and nausea/vomiting (21%). For mental health reasons, the most common were for anxiety (52%), depression (40%), and PTSD/trauma (17%). There were 11% who reported using cannabis for managing other drug or alcohol use and 4% for psychosis. Conclusions A substantial proportion of the North American population self-reported cannabis use for medical purposes for a variety of medical reasons, including those living in jurisdictions without legal markets. Further research is needed to understand the safety and efficacy of these forms of medical cannabis use.

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