Mutation patterns of DNA adducts, such as mutational spectra and signatures, are useful tools for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Mutational spectra of carcinogens derive from three sources: adduct formation, replication bypass, and repair. Here, we consider the repair aspect of 1,N6-ethenoadenine (εA) by the 2-oxoglutarate/Fe(II)-dependent AlkB family enzymes. Specifically, we investigated εA repair across 16 possible sequence contexts (5′/3′ flanking base to εA varied as G/A/T/C). The results revealed that repair efficiency is altered according to sequence, enzyme, and strand context (ss- versus ds-DNA). The methods can be used to study other aspects of mutational spectra or other pathways of repair.
AbstractDrosophila, Arabidopsis, Synechocystis, human (DASH)-type cryptochromes (cry-DASHs) form one subclade of the cryptochrome/photolyase family (CPF). CPF members are flavoproteins that act as DNA-repair enzymes (DNA-photolyases), or as ultraviolet(UV)-A/blue light photoreceptors (cryptochromes). In mammals, cryptochromes are essential components of the circadian clock feed-back loop. Cry-DASHs are present in almost all major taxa and were initially considered as photoreceptors. Later studies demonstrated DNA-repair activity that was, however, restricted to UV-lesions in single-stranded DNA. Very recent studies, particularly on microbial organisms, substantiated photoreceptor functions of cry-DASHs suggesting that they could be transitions between photolyases and cryptochromes.