essential components
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 820-826
Chengyong Wu ◽  
Weifeng Wei ◽  
Jing Li ◽  
Shenglin Peng

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is closely related to the migrating and invading behaviors of cells. Periostin is one of the essential components in the extracellular matrix and can induce EMT of cells and their sequential metastasis. But its underlying mechanism is unclear. The Hela and BMSC cell lines were assigned into Periostin-mimic group, Periostin-Inhibitor group and Periostin-NC group followed by analysis of cell migration and invasion, expression of E-Cadherin, Vimentin, β-Catenin, Snail, MMP-2, MMP-9, PTEN, and p-PTEN. Cells in Periostin-mimic group exhibited lowest migration, least number of invaded cells, as well as lowest levels of Vimentin, β-Catenin, Snail, MMP-2, MMP-9, p-PTEN, Akt, p-Akt, p-GSK-3β, p-PDK1 and p-cRcf, along with highest levels of E-cadherin and PTEN. Moreover, cells in Periostin-NC group had intermediate levels of these above indicators, while, the Periostin-Inhibitor group exhibited the highest migration rate, the most number of invaded cells, and the highest levels of these proteins (P < 0.05). In conclusion, BMSCs-derived Periostin can influence the EMT of cervical cancer cells possibly through restraining the activity of the PI3K/AKT signal transduction pathway, indicating that Periostin might be a target of chemotherapy in clinics for the treatment of cervical cancer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Shuang Geng ◽  
Nicola Molinaro ◽  
Polina Timofeeva ◽  
Ileana Quiñones ◽  
Manuel Carreiras ◽  

AbstractWords representing objects (nouns) and words representing actions (verbs) are essential components of speech across languages. While there is evidence regarding the organizational principles governing neural representation of nouns and verbs in monolingual speakers, little is known about how this knowledge is represented in the bilingual brain. To address this gap, we recorded neuromagnetic signals while highly proficient Spanish–Basque bilinguals performed a picture-naming task and tracked the brain oscillatory dynamics underlying this process. We found theta (4–8 Hz) power increases and alpha–beta (8–25 Hz) power decreases irrespectively of the category and language at use in a time window classically associated to the controlled retrieval of lexico-semantic information. When comparing nouns and verbs within each language, we found theta power increases for verbs as compared to nouns in bilateral visual cortices and cognitive control areas including the left SMA and right middle temporal gyrus. In addition, stronger alpha–beta power decreases were observed for nouns as compared to verbs in visual cortices and semantic-related regions such as the left anterior temporal lobe and right premotor cortex. No differences were observed between categories across languages. Overall, our results suggest that noun and verb processing recruit partially different networks during speech production but that these category-based representations are similarly processed in the bilingual brain.

Nusrat Jahan Arefin ◽  

Education is one of the essential components in developing a scholarly society capable of facing the demands and challenges of the twenty-first century. Education policy refers to the principles of government policymaking in the educational sector and the set of laws and norms that govern the operation of the educational system. It focuses on the effects of educational policy decisions and alternatives in the real world. It investigates the link between educational policy and practice. Even though our educational system has shortcomings, we are improving daily. Bangladesh is fully committed to the EFA goals, the Millennium Development Goals, and universal declarations. Every child between the ages of six and eighteen is entitled to free education under Article seventeen of the Bangladesh Constitution. As a result, the "National Education Policy 2010" was created using the incremental model of one of the most used public policy frameworks. The government makes incremental public policy decisions based on earlier actions. All of the model's functions are divided into distinct groups. Our educational system underwent significant changes over a long period. The incremental model's important aspects are time progression and social demand.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 204-208
Euis Nursa'adah ◽  
Bhakti Karyadi ◽  
Ratu Eva Febriani ◽  
Ahmad Mudzakir

Understanding aspects of the Nature of Science (NOS) for preservice science teachers is one of the essential components to be able to understand Science and its processes. There are seven aspects of NOS: empirical, inference, creative, latent theory, tentative, scientific procedural myths, theories and laws of science, social and cultural dimensions, and their embedding in science. There are 48 preservice science teachers involved in this study. Researchers explored their views about NOS and Indigenous Knowledge (IK) through a validated questionnaire. Results showed that the students' opinions on NOS consisted of empirical, tentative, inference, law, scientific theory, and creativity. Meanwhile, aspects of laden theory, myths of scientific procedures, and social and cultural dimensions embedded with science have not been described by students. Fortunately, the students presented IK as an authentic context based on the culture in science learning.  Students express IK ideas: 1) biomedicine (40 students), Biopesticide (2 students), beauty ingredients (2 students), additives (1 student), and supernatural medicine (1 student). Integrating Science and IK as an authentic context in science learning leads IK toward high technology and strengthens NOS aspects. In addition, the assumption that IK has no future is declining.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Ran Sun ◽  
Jiamin Huang ◽  
Yunxi Yang ◽  
Lu Liu ◽  
Yiming Shao ◽  

AbstractLow-density neutrophils (LDNs) have been described in tumors and various autoimmune diseases, where they exhibit immune dysfunction and alter disease progression. Nevertheless, LDNs have been rarely reported in sepsis. We studied sepsis patients admitted to the intensive care unit. Wright-Giemsa stain assay and Transmission electron microscopy were performed to detect the morphology of neutrophils. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the number and function of LDNs. Concentration of cytokines was measured using ELISA. Neutrophil chemotaxis was examined using an under-agarose chemotaxis model. We found that LDNs were significantly elevated in patients with sepsis. Phenotypes and morphological characteristics suggest that LDNs may be formed by mixtures of neutrophils at various maturation stages. In vitro experiments showed that LDN formation was closely associated with neutrophil degranulation. We preliminarily discussed changes in immune function in LDNs. Compared with high-density neutrophils, expression levels of CXC chemokine receptor 4 on LDN surfaces were increased, phagocytotic capacity was decreased, and life span was prolonged. The chemotactic ability of LDNs was significantly reduced, possibly related to the increased expression of P2X1. These data suggest that LDNs are essential components of neutrophils in sepsis. To clarify the source and dysfunction mechanism of LDN in sepsis may be helpful for the diagnosis and treatment of sepsis in the future.

M. N. Ramli ◽  
A. R. Abdul Rasam ◽  
M. A. Rosly

Abstract. A well-developed healthcare system, decent access to clean water and sanitation, and programmes to eliminate poverty and build modern infrastructure are essential components to create healthier Malaysia's population. Non-communicable diseases currently account for most of the mortality and morbidity, although communicable diseases such as dengue fever, avian flu and covid-19 still pose a threat. The World Health Organization (WHO) identified COVID-19 is a rare pneumonia disease that originated in Wuhan, on January 12, 2020, before it became an outbreak in all countries including Malaysia. The requirement of a precise mapping and Cartography for the accurate disease mapping and data management are crucial due to a precise map gives higher resolution of the data and for more specific data analysis, interpretation and decision making process. In Malaysia, there no specific report on precise mapping for health applications, and it is therefore this paper is to identify the potential criteria and factors needed for precise health mapping applications. A precise health mapping is essential to create a precise risk map towards the surveillance and signal detection, predicting future risk, targeted interventions, and understanding disease phenomena.

Thorax ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. thoraxjnl-2021-217997
Amy M de Waal ◽  
Pieter S Hiemstra ◽  
Tom HM Ottenhoff ◽  
Simone A Joosten ◽  
Anne M van der Does

The lung epithelium has long been overlooked as a key player in tuberculosis disease. In addition to acting as a direct barrier to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), epithelial cells (EC) of the airways and alveoli act as first responders during Mtb infections; they directly sense and respond to Mtb by producing mediators such as cytokines, chemokines and antimicrobials. Interactions of EC with innate and adaptive immune cells further shape the immune response against Mtb. These three essential components, epithelium, immune cells and Mtb, are rarely studied in conjunction, owing in part to difficulties in coculturing them. Recent advances in cell culture technologies offer the opportunity to model the lung microenvironment more closely. Herein, we discuss the interplay between lung EC, immune cells and Mtb and argue that modelling these interactions is of key importance to unravel early events during Mtb infection.

2022 ◽  
Zena Abdulameer Mohammad ◽  
Muhamad Hasbi

Reading is one of the essential components of the English language. Countries that use English as a second language (ESL) sometimes have difficulties in reading and comprehension. According to many researches, mother tongue has proved some interferences with learning a second language. This study investigated the results of reading difficulties of young second language learners in terms of accuracy, comprehension, and rate using the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability test. The study was carried out in one of the High Schools for Boys in Hyderabad, India and included Grade five, aged 10-12 years. In order to understand the reading difficulties of English as a second language, a qualitative approach was employed. Interview, reading tests, and observation were conducted as a data collection tool. The findings showed that these subjects had no specific language impairments but they had different degrees of language exposure and usage that led to poor accuracy, comprehension, and reading rate during reading English language texts. Five students (50%) were classified at a low level of readers, three (30%) at a high level, and two (20%) at a mild level after evaluation of their compatibility between their chronological and reading age. It is suggested that the teachers should first assess students who struggle in reading accuracy and comprehension and then assist them with their language learning and acquisition that take place at school and home.

Autism ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 136236132110644
Sarah R Edmunds ◽  
Kyle M Frost ◽  
R Chris Sheldrick ◽  
Alice Bravo ◽  
Diondra Straiton ◽  

Defining the central components of an intervention is critical for balancing fidelity with flexible implementation in both research settings and community practice. Implementation scientists distinguish an intervention’s essential components (thought to cause clinical change) and adaptable periphery (recommended, but not necessary). While implementing core components with fidelity may be essential for effectiveness, requiring fidelity to the adaptable periphery may stifle innovation critical for personalizing care and achieving successful community implementation. No systematic method exists for defining essential components a priori. We present the CORE (COmponents & Rationales for Effectiveness) Fidelity Method—a novel method for defining key components of evidence-based interventions—and apply it to a case example of reciprocal imitation teaching, a parent-implemented social communication intervention. The CORE Fidelity Method involves three steps: (1) gathering information from published and unpublished materials; (2) synthesizing information, including empirical and hypothesized causal explanations of component effectiveness; and (3) drafting a CORE model and ensuring its ongoing use in implementation efforts. Benefits of this method include: (1) ensuring alignment between intervention and fidelity materials; (2) clarifying the scope of the adaptable periphery to optimize implementation; and (3) hypothesizing—and later, empirically validating—the intervention’s active ingredients and their associated mechanisms of change. Lay abstract Interventions that support social communication include several “components,” or parts (e.g. strategies for working with children and families, targeting specific skills). Some of these components may be essential for the intervention to work, while others may be recommended or viewed as helpful but not necessary for the intervention to work. “Recommended” components are often described as “adaptable” because they can be changed to improve fit in different settings where interventions are offered or with different individuals. We need to understand which parts of an intervention are essential (and which are adaptable) when translating interventions from research to community settings, but it is challenging to do this before studying an intervention in the community. This article presents the CORE (COmponents & Rationales for Effectiveness) Fidelity Method—a new method for defining the essential components of evidence-based interventions—and applies it to a case example of Reciprocal Imitation Teaching, an intervention that parents are taught to deliver with their young children with social communication delays. The CORE Fidelity Method involves three steps: (1) gathering information from multiple sources; (2) integrating information from previous research and theory; and (3) drafting a CORE model for ongoing use. The benefits of using the CORE Fidelity Method may include: (1) improving consistency in intervention and research materials to help all providers emphasize the most important skills or strategies; (2) clarifying which parts of the intervention can be adapted; and (3) supporting future research that evaluates which intervention components work and how they work.

Jing Liu ◽  
Xiaolong Ge ◽  
Chunhui Ouyang ◽  
Dongxu Wang ◽  
Xiaoqi Zhang ◽  

Abstract Background Malnutrition is prevalent among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Nutritional profiles among Asian patients with IBD have seldom been investigated. We assessed the prevalence of and risk factors for malnutrition, use of nutrition support, and sociopsychological status associated with malnutrition among patients with IBD in China. Methods Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) recruited from 43 tertiary referral hospitals were screened for malnutrition and nutrient deficiencies in this cross-sectional study. The use of nutrition support was recorded. The sociopsychological status was assessed by subjective questionnaires. Factors associated with malnutrition were analyzed, and multivariate regression was used to determine independent predictors for malnutrition. Results We recruited 1013 patients with a median age of 35.0 years, 58.5% of them had CD, and 61.4% of all patients were male. Overall, 49.5% (501) of patients were diagnosed with malnutrition, including 57.0% of patients with CD, 38.8% of patients with UC, and 44.1% of patients with quiescent or mildly active disease. Nutrient deficiencies were prevalent despite the absence of malnutrition. Malnutrition was associated with adverse sociopsychological status, including decreased social support, higher perceived stress, and impaired quality of life. Moderate to severe disease activity and extensive disease were two independent risk factors for malnutrition. In total, 41.6% of patients received nutrition support, and patients with risk factors were more likely to receive nutrition support. Conclusions Malnutrition was highly prevalent and associated with adverse consequences in Chinese patients with IBD. Malnutrition screening and early initiation of nutrition support are essential components in IBD care.

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