Psychological Well Being
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Author(s):  
M. Beatriz Fernández ◽  
Javiera Rosell

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0255181
Author(s):  
Andrea Bonanomi ◽  
Federica Facchin ◽  
Serena Barello ◽  
Daniela Villani

Background During the COVID-19 pandemic, many people had to shift their social and work life online. A few researchers and journalists described a new form of fatigue associated with a massive use of technology, including videoconferencing platforms. In this study, this type of fatigue was referred to as Online Fatigue. A new tool (the Online Fatigue Scale) was developed, and its psychometric properties were evaluated. This tool was used to assess Online Fatigue among Italian academics and to examine its associations with psychological and physical health. Methods An online survey was conducted in December 2020 on a sample of Italian academics. Besides the Online Fatigue Scale (11 items) used to assess Online Fatigue, the survey was composed of questionnaires (including validated measures) focused on sociodemographic and job-related information, technostress creators, health status, psychological well-being, and COVID-related perceived distress. The psychometric properties of the Online Fatigue Scale were evaluated, and statistical analyses were conducted to examine the associations between Online Fatigue and all the other variables. Results Participants were 307 academics aged 24–70 years old (mean age = 40.7; SD = 10.1). The Online Fatigue Scale showed good psychometric properties. Two subscales were identified: Off-Balance Fatigue and Virtual Relations Fatigue. High levels of Off-Balance Fatigue were associated with a greater use of technology, female gender, and presence of minor children. Participants with high scores on both subscales reported a greater frequency of psychosomatic symptoms, unhealthy habits, poorer psychological well-being, and greater Covid-related perceived distress. Conclusions The Online Fatigue Scale can be considered a reliable tool to assess Online Fatigue, which was significantly detected in our sample of Italian academics, along with its negative effects on physical and psychological health. Being a woman and having young children represent important risk factors. Universities should promote the separation between work and private life by encouraging self-care activities.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hui Xian Fong ◽  
Kim Cornish ◽  
Hannah Kirk ◽  
Kartini Ilias ◽  
Mohd Farooq Shaikh ◽  
...  

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns have adversely impacted children on the autism spectrum and their families, especially in Malaysia where this population is often marginalized. The current quantitative research aimed to investigate the impact of the Malaysian COVID-19 lockdown on the behavior and psychological distress of children formally diagnosed with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) as well as the psychological distress and well-being of their parents, in comparison with a typically developing (TD) control group.Methods: The children's ages ranged between 5 and 17 years. The sample included 72 ASC parent-child dyads and 62 TD parent-child dyads. The primary caregiver completed an online survey including the following: demographic and diagnostic information; ASC symptoms; children's inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, perceived stress, depression, and anxiety; parents' perceived stress, depression, anxiety, and well-being based on their experience pre- and mid-lockdown (March 18th to June 9th 2020) in Malaysia.Results: Among the ASC group, no significant pre- and mid-lockdown change was found in ASC symptoms (p > 0.05). There were no significant gender differences (boys/girls) in all the child scales. The 2 [diagnosis (ASC, TD)] × 2 [lockdown (pre-lockdown, mid-lockdown)] mixed-model ANOVAs revealed main effects of lockdown on children's attention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, anxiety, and parents' perceived stress, depression, and psychological well-being (p < 0.005). There was a main effect of diagnosis in all child and parent variables, except parents' perceived stress (p >0.005). However, there was no significant interaction effect between diagnosis and lockdown (p >0.005). All child behavior (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity) and child psychological distress (anxiety, depression, and perceived stress) were significantly correlated in both the ASC and TD groups (p < 0.005). On the other hand, only some of the parent variables were significantly correlated with child variables (p < 0.0045) in the ASC group while none of the parent variables were significantly correlated with the child variables (p > 0.005) in the TD group.Conclusion: The results provide preliminary evidence indicating negative effects of the Malaysian lockdown on both children on the autism spectrum and TD children, as well as their parents. These quantitative results will be triangulated with the qualitative interview data to provide a holistic understanding of the impact of the pandemic, informing translational policy and practice recommendations.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258493
Author(s):  
Adriana Rezende Lopes ◽  
Oscar Kenji Nihei

Background The COVID-19 pandemic raises concerns about the mental health of the world population. Protection measures to prevention the disease impacted education and undergraduate students were exposed to additional stressors. Objectives Analyze depression, anxiety and stress symptoms in undergraduates, their respective predictors and the association with satisfaction with life, psychological well-being and coping strategies. Methods An online cross-sectional study was conducted from September 14 to October 19, 2020, involving undergraduate students enrolled in 33 courses from 5 public university campuses in the state of Parana, Brazil, using: questionnaire with sociodemographic, academic, health and pandemic effects variables; Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21); Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS); Psychological Well-Being (PWB); BriefCOPE. The convenience sample was composed of 1,224 participants, with 18 years old or older, that completed all research instruments. Spearman correlation and logistic analysis (univariate and multivariate) were applied to the collected data. Results Most of the undergraduates presented symptoms of depression (60.5%), anxiety (52.5%) and stress (57.5%). Depression, anxiety and stress presented significant correlations in common: negative with satisfaction with life, all dimensions of psychological well-being, and 3 adaptive copings (active coping, planning, positive reframing); positive with 5 maladaptive copings (behavioral disengagement, denial, self-blame, self-distraction, substance use). In addition, there were 7 common predictors for symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress: female; age 18–24 years old; having a chronic disease; lower scores in 2 dimensions of psychological well-being (positive relations with others, self-acceptance); higher scores in 2 maladaptive copings (self-blame, substance use). Conclusions The data indicate a high prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, and suggest that higher scores of satisfaction with life, psychological well-being dimensions and adaptive copings may present protective effects in undergraduates during a pandemic crisis.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Daniel Hernández-Torrano ◽  
Laura Ibrayeva ◽  
Ainur Muratkyzy ◽  
Natalya Lim ◽  
Yerden Nurtayev ◽  
...  

Positive mental health and well-being are significant dimensions of health, employment, and educational outcomes. Research on positive mental health and well-being requires measurement instruments in native languages for use in local contexts and target populations. This study examines the psychometric properties of the Kazakhstani version of the Mental Health Continuum—Short Form (MHC-SF), a brief self-report instrument measuring emotional, social, and psychological well-being. The sample included 664 University students (425 females) purposefully selected in three higher education institutions in South, East, and Central Kazakhstan. Their average age was 20.25 and ranged from 18 to 43. Participants completed a Kazakhstani version of the MHC-SF online. Statistical analyses to evaluate the structural validity, reliability, and measurement invariance of the Kazakhstani version of the MHC-SF were performed. The results confirmed the superiority of the bifactor model (i.e., three separated factors of well-being plus a general factor of well-being) over the alternatives. However, most of the reliable variance was attributable to the general well-being factor. Subscale scores were unreliable, explaining very low variance beyond that explained by the general factor. The findings demonstrated the measurement invariance of the MHC-SF across gender and age. Overall, these findings support the use of the Kazakhstani version of the MHC-SF to examine a general factor of well-being and the measurement invariance of the instrument across gender and age groups. However, the results advise against the interpretation of the subscale scores as unequivocal indicators of emotional, social, and psychological well-being.


2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-1
Author(s):  
Om Prakash Singh

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ying-Chen Kuo ◽  
Ru-Lan Hsieh ◽  
Wen-Chung Lee

Abstract The effectiveness of arch-support insoles on children remains controversial. We evaluated the short-term therapeutic effects of arch-support insoles on the physical functional performance, physical function, and psychological well-being of healthy children under the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) framework. It was a prospective double-blind randomized controlled study. The participants were randomized into 2 groups, the treatment group (with customized arch-support insoles) and the control group (without insoles) for a 12-week intervention period. The walking speed test, stairs ascent and descent tests, the Five Times Sit-to-Stand test, and the Timed Up and Go test for physical functional performance, and the Pediatric Outcome Data Collection Instrument-Parent (PODCI) and the Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form (CHQ-PF28) for the physical function and psychological well-being of children were assessed. Forty-five children completed the study. Compared with the control group, after 12 weeks of wearing customized insoles, the treatment group exhibited significant improvement in physical functional performance in terms of fastest walking speed (effect size: .515, P = .046), stairs ascent time (effect size: .658, P = .023), and stairs descent time (effect size: .718, P = .012). No significant difference was found between PODCI and CHQ-PF28 scores.Conclusions: Children wearing customized arch-support insoles for 12 weeks improved their physical functional performance which belonged to the domain of activity in the ICF. However, using insoles did not affect the physical function and psychological well-being of children.ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03198299), date of registration: June 2017, retrospectively registered.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Giulia Ongaro ◽  
Clizia Cincidda ◽  
Valeria Sebri ◽  
Lucrezia Savioni ◽  
Stefano Triberti ◽  
...  

The Italian state adopted serious safety measures to manage the COVID-19 pandemic in the year 2020. The lockdown was associated with negative psychological consequences in healthy populations, mostly in terms of anxiety, distress, depression, and even traumatic symptoms. This longitudinal study aimed at briefly documenting the psychological impact among an Italian sample, in terms of worry and its impact on psychological well-being levels, of the first wave of COVID-19, taking into account the changes in the lockdown scenario. A three-time follow-up survey was administered to 177 subjects (Female: 78%, Mage = 36.33), during (T0), at the end (T1), and 3 months after the end of the first lockdown (T2). Since the first wave of COVID-19, results showed a decrease in worry and the perception of virus diffusion’s controllability over time while psychological well-being increased. Furthermore, factors such as personality traits (neuroticism and agreeableness) and dysfunctional coping strategies predicted increases in worry levels at the end of the lockdown and 3 months after in the Italian context. However, worry levels during and at the end of the lockdown did not predict well-being levels 3 months after the end of the lockdown. Based on these findings, mental health policymakers should design tailored interventions able to improve the perception of virus diffusion management, as well as address the psychological needs of Italian citizens and support it, including a plan for the follow-up evaluation.


Author(s):  
Micael Dahlen ◽  
Helge Thorbjørnsen ◽  
Hallgeir Sjåstad ◽  
Petra von Heideken Wågert ◽  
Charlotta Hellström ◽  
...  

Societal crises and personal challenges are often followed by substantial changes in physical activity. Is there a link between such changes and psychological well-being? Seeking to answer this question, we conducted a correlational study on a representative sample in Sweden during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic (N = 1035). About 49% of the sample had decreased their physical activity compared to their self-reported activity level prior to the pandemic, whereas 32% had increased it. The results showed a positive and robust association between changes in daily activity level and corresponding changes in psychological well-being. Specifically, individuals who had reduced their physical activity over the last year reported lower life satisfaction than before, and individuals who had increased their physical activity reported higher life satisfaction than before. The amount of complete physical inactivity (sitting) showed a similar pattern as the exercise data, meaning that individuals who reported increasing inactivity per day also reported a greater decline in life satisfaction. Additional analyses showed that the association between daily activity level and life satisfaction was somewhat stronger for men than for women, but there was no difference when comparing individual versus organized activities. The current study was based on a cross-sectional design, measuring self-reported change over time. Recent work from other research teams have used longitudinal data and experience-sampling in different settings, finding similar results. We conclude that there is good reason to recommend physical exercise as a coping strategy in difficult times.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Carin Hill ◽  
Jan Alewyn Nel ◽  
Leon T. de Beer ◽  
Velichko H. Fetvadjiev ◽  
Lyle I Stevens ◽  
...  

The purpose of this study was to expand internal construct validity and equivalence research of the South African Personality Inventory (SAPI), as well as to investigate the nomological validity of the SAPI by examining its relationship with specific and relevant psychological outcomes. The internal and external validity of the SAPI was assessed within three separate samples (N = 936). Using the combined data from all three samples, Exploratory Structural Equation Modelling (ESEM) indicated that the six-factor SAPI model fit proved to be excellent. Measurement invariance analyses showed that the SAPI dimensions in the ESEM model were invariant across gender and race groups. Next, two separate studies explored the associations of the SAPI factors with relevant psychological outcomes. An ESEM-within-CFA (set ESEM) method was used to add the factors into a new input file to correlate them with variables that were not part of the initial ESEM model. Both models generated excellent fit. In Study 1, psychological well-being and cultural intelligence were correlated with the SAPI factors within a sample of students and working adults. All of the psychological well-being dimensions significantly correlated with the SAPI factors, while for cultural intelligence, the highest correlations were between Meta-cognition and Openness and Meta-cognition and Positive Social-Relational Disposition. In Study 2, work locus of control and trait anxiety was correlated with the SAPI factors within a sample of adults from the general South African workforce. Work Locus of Control correlated with most factors of the SAPI, but more prominently with Positive Social-Relational Disposition, while Neuroticism correlated strongly with trait anxiety. Finding an appropriate internal structure that measures personality without bias in a culturally diverse context is difficult. This study provided strong evidence that the SAPI meets the demanding requirements of personality measurement in this context and generated promising results to support the relevance of the SAPI factors.


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