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2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-37
Denae Ford ◽  
Margaret-Anne Storey ◽  
Thomas Zimmermann ◽  
Christian Bird ◽  
Sonia Jaffe ◽  

The COVID-19 pandemic has shaken the world to its core and has provoked an overnight exodus of developers who normally worked in an office setting to working from home. The magnitude of this shift and the factors that have accompanied this new unplanned work setting go beyond what the software engineering community has previously understood to be remote work. To find out how developers and their productivity were affected, we distributed two surveys (with a combined total of 3,634 responses that answered all required questions) weeks apart to understand the presence and prevalence of the benefits, challenges, and opportunities to improve this special circumstance of remote work. From our thematic qualitative analysis and statistical quantitative analysis, we find that there is a dichotomy of developer experiences influenced by many different factors (that for some are a benefit, while for others a challenge). For example, a benefit for some was being close to family members but for others having family members share their working space and interrupting their focus, was a challenge. Our surveys led to powerful narratives from respondents and revealed the scale at which these experiences exist to provide insights as to how the future of (pandemic) remote work can evolve.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Xingzhou Guo ◽  
Hongyue Wu ◽  
Yunfeng Chen ◽  
Yuan Chang ◽  
Yibin Ao

PurposePersonal lifestyle, work environments and work-related factors can significantly affect occupant productivity. Although many studies examine the affecting factors of occupant productivity in offices, explorations for the home-based work environment, which is designed mainly for living purposes, are still scarce. Moreover, current pandemic has made work from home a new normal for workers around the world. Therefore, it is important to identify key causal factors of occupant productivity when working from home.Design/methodology/approachThis study employed descriptive analysis and regression analysis method to explore the relationship among personal lifestyle, indoor environmental quality and work-related factors toward occupant productivity. A questionnaire including a comprehensive list of key measures was designed and 189 valid responses were collected from more than 13,000 participants.FindingsResults show that a healthy lifestyle, the perceived satisfaction of visual and acoustic environment, communication, interest in work, workload, flexible schedule and privacy positively affect occupant productivity when working from home, while coffee consumption, outside views and windows have negative effect.Originality/valueOpportunities to enhance occupants' home-based work productivity include developing a healthy lifestyle by taking advantage of flexible schedule, equipping a working room at home with advanced and intelligent environment control systems, and improving communication, workload and schedule by changing the policy of companies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (GROUP) ◽  
pp. 1-33
Janghee Cho ◽  
Samuel Beck ◽  
Stephen Voida

The COVID-19 pandemic fundamentally changed the nature of work by shifting most in-person work to a predominantly remote modality as a way to limit the spread of the coronavirus. In the process, the shift to working-from-home rapidly forced the large-scale adoption of groupware technologies. Although prior empirical research examined the experience of working-from-home within small-scale groups and for targeted kinds of work, the pandemic provides HCI and CSCW researchers with an unprecedented opportunity to understand the psycho-social impacts of a universally mandated work-from-home experience rather than an autonomously chosen one. Drawing on boundary theory and a methodological approach grounded in humanistic geography, we conducted a qualitative analysis of Reddit data drawn from two work-from-home-related subreddits between March 2020 and January 2021. In this paper, we present a characterization of the challenges and solutions discussed within these online communities for adapting work to a hybrid or fully remote modality, managing reconfigured work-life boundaries, and reconstructing the home's sense of place to serve multiple, sometimes conflicting roles. We discuss how these findings suggest an emergent interplay among adapted work practice, reimagined physical (and virtual) spaces, and the establishment and continual re-negotiation of boundaries as a means for anticipating the long-term impact of COVID on future conceptualizations of productivity and work.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Zaheer Kyaw Hla ◽  
Rodrigo Ramalho ◽  
Lauranna Teunissen ◽  
Isabelle Cuykx ◽  
Paulien Decorte ◽  

AimsTo explore changes in alcohol purchase and consumption during the first few months of the Covid-19 pandemic, and assess associations between increased alcohol purchase/use and socioeconomic and environmental factors.DesignSecondary data from a cross-sectional online survey conducted from 17 April to 25 June 2020.SettingThirty-eight countries from all continents of the world.ParticipantsA total of 37,206 adults (mean age:36.7, SD:14.8, 77% female) reporting alcohol purchasing and drinking habit before and during the pandemic.MeasurementsChanges in alcohol stock-up and frequency of alcohol use during the pandemic and increased alcohol stock-up and use were stratified by gender, age, education, household structure, working status, income loss, psychological distress, and country based on alcohol consumption per capita. The associations between increased alcohol stock-up/use and living with children, working from home, income loss and distress were examined using multivariate logistic regression, controlling for demographic factors.FindingsThe majority of respondents reported no change in their alcohol purchasing and drinking habits during the early pandemic period. Increased drinking was reported by 20.2% of respondents, while 17.6% reported decreased alcohol use. More than half (53.3%) of respondents experienced psychological distress, with one in five (20.7%) having severe distress. Female gender, being aged under 50, higher educational attainment, living with children, working from home, and psychological distress were all independently associated with increased alcohol drinking during lockdown. Limitations of the study were the non-representative sample, the data collection early in the pandemic, and the non-standard measurement of alcohol consumption.ConclusionIncreased psychological distress among people during the early pandemic period, resulted in increased alcohol consumption, especially among women with children working from home during lockdown.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261969
Amanda M. Y. Chu ◽  
Thomas W. C. Chan ◽  
Mike K. P. So

During the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, many employees have switched to working from home. Despite the findings of previous research that working from home can improve productivity, the scale, nature, and purpose of those studies are not the same as in the current situation with the COVID-19 pandemic. We studied the effects that three stress relievers of the work-from-home environment–company support, supervisor’s trust in the subordinate, and work-life balance–had on employees’ psychological well-being (stress and happiness), which in turn influenced productivity and engagement in non-work-related activities during working hours. In order to collect honest responses on sensitive questions or negative forms of behavior including stress and non-work-related activities, we adopted the randomized response technique in the survey design to minimize response bias. We collected a total of 500 valid responses and analyzed the results with structural equation modelling. We found that among the three stress relievers, work-life balance was the only significant construct that affected psychological well-being. Stress when working from home promoted non-work-related activities during working hours, whereas happiness improved productivity. Interestingly, non-work-related activities had no significant effect on productivity. The research findings provide evidence that management’s maintenance of a healthy work-life balance for colleagues when they are working from home is important for supporting their psychosocial well-being and in turn upholding their work productivity.

2022 ◽  
Melda Lois Griffiths ◽  
Benjamin J Gray ◽  
Richard G Kyle ◽  
Alisha R Davies

Aim To explore the working Welsh adult population's ability to work from home, their preferences for the future, and the self-reported health impacts of home-working. Subject and Method: A nationally-representative household survey was undertaken across Wales (Public Health Wales' COVID-19, Employment and Health in Wales study), with cross-sectional data on home-working being collected between November 2020 and January 2021 from 615 employed working-aged adults in Wales (63.7% female, 32.7% aged 50-59). Respondents were asked about their ability to work from home, their perceptions of its impact on their health and their preferences for time spent home-working in future. Results Over 50% were able to work from home, and showed a preference towards home-working to some capacity, with over a third wishing to work from home at least half the time. However, those living in the most deprived areas, in atypical employment, with high wage precarity or with limiting pre-existing conditions were less likely to report being able to work from home. Of those that could work from home, over 40% reported that it worsened their mental well-being and loneliness, and for people in poorer health, home-working negatively impacted their diet, physical activity, smoking and alcohol use. People aged 30 to 39 and those who lived alone were more likely to report wanting to spend some time working in an office/base instead of at home. Conclusion The inequity in the ability to work from home reflects underlying inequalities in Wales, with those facing the greatest insecurity (e.g. those living in most deprived areas, those with more precarious work or financial circumstances) being less able to participate in home-working. Working from home offers greater flexibility, reduces the financial and time costs associated with commuting, and protects individuals from exposure to communicable diseases. However, working from home presents an enormous challenge to preserving the mental-wellbeing of the workforce, particularly for younger individuals and those with low mental well-being. Younger respondents and those in poorer health who could work from home were also more likely to engage in health-harming behaviours, and reduce their engagement in health-protective behaviours such as eating well and moving more. Reflecting on the future, providing pathways for accessing work from home arrangements, integrating hybrid models and preparing targeted health support for at risk groups may be best suited to the working population's preferences and needs.

2022 ◽  
Joseph Crawford

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought forth substantial unrest in the ways in which people work and organize. This had led to disconnection, rapid adaptation, work from home, emergence of a new digital industry, and an opportunity to create anew. This chapter provides a position for the future state of work and organizing, drawing on the belongingness hypothesis, to characterize a revised method of human connection that acknowledges unique differences in online connections. It also explores the role that flexibility and working from home have on organizational outcomes, through changing presenteeism, changes in how people develop trust, and how social resources are deployed. Advancing an understanding of this position creates a possible post-pandemic model of work that acknowledges the current climate and the learnings from before that pandemic. Through genuine acknowledgment of the current and past ways of working, it is possible to build a pathway to heighten employee’s sense of belonging and trust. This will support the return to, and evolution of, a form of normality post-pandemic.

Iwona Staniec ◽  
Dominika Kaczorowska-Spychalska ◽  
Magdalena Kalinska-Kula ◽  
Nina Szczygiel

This paper reports on the experiences of working with new digital tools along with the experience of new remote work. We explore the emotional experiences of working from home during the first three months of the COVID-19 pandemic and their implications. There were two groups of respondents participating in the study, those who had experience working remotely before the pandemic [digital natives] and those who started working remotely during the pandemic [digital immigrants]. The results show that emotional experiences while working from home do not differ depending on the profession, age, gender, length of experience and from previous remote work. This suggests that the digital natives had to deal with the same emotions as the digital immigrants. The study found that independent external changes determine the growth of competence in employees, in this particular case, to work remotely. Working in conditions that are difficult for everyone obliges employees to cooperate, even across company boundaries, and increases each other’s competencies. In such situations, the management is required to be emotionally involved and closer to the employee.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Reza Tajaddini ◽  
Hassan F. Gholipour ◽  
Amir Arjomandi

Purpose The purpose of this study is to explain the potential long-term impacts of working from home on housing wealth inequality in large cities of advanced economies. Design/methodology/approach This study is descriptive research and It supports the arguments by providing some emerging evidence from property markets in developed countries. Findings The authors argue that due to the unique nature of the COVID-19 crisis, it will have a different and long-term impact on housing wealth inequality. Changes in the working arrangements of many professionals will change the housing demand dynamic across different suburbs and may lead to a reduction of the housing wealth gap in the long term. In this paper, the authors propose five mechanisms that may impact housing wealth inequality. Research limitations/implications Long-term data is required to test the proposed conceptual model in this study and the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on housing wealth across and within suburbs of large cities. Practical implications Policymakers and regulators may benefit from the discussions and suggestions provided in this study and consider the proposed avenues on how new changes in the working environment (remote working) may result in a reduction of housing wealth inequality. Originality/value This study presents a new perspective about the potential long-term impacts of working from home that is posed by the COVID-19 pandemic on housing wealth inequality in large cities of developed economies.

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