rapid cooling
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2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Tao Tian ◽  
Peng Yang ◽  
Jianming Yao ◽  
Zhonghui Duan ◽  
Zhanli Ren ◽  

The Micangshan-Dabashan tectonic belt, located in the southern Qinling-Dabie Orogen near the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, is a crucial area for understanding the processes and mechanisms of orogenesis. Previous studies have been focused on the cooling process via thermochronology and the mechanism and process of basement uplift have been investigated. However, the coupling process of basement exhumation and sedimentary cap cooling is unclear. The tectono-thermal history constrained by the detrital apatite fission track (AFT) results could provide valuable information for understanding crustal evolution and the coupling process. In this study, we provided new detrital AFT thermochronology results from the Micangshan-Dabashan tectonic belt and obtained nine high-quality tectono-thermal models revealing the Meso-Cenozoic cooling histories. The AFT ages and lengths suggest that the cooling events in the Micangshan area were gradual from north (N) to south (S) and different uplift occurred on both sides of Micangshan massif. The cooling in Dabashan tectonic zone was gradual from northeast (NS) to southwest (SW). The thermal histories show that a relatively rapid cooling since ca. 160 Ma occurred in the Micangshan-Dabashan tectonic belt, which was a response to the event of Qinling orogenic belt entered the intracontinental orogenic deformation. This cooling event may relate to the northeastward dextral compression of the Yangtze Block. The sedimentary cap of Cambriano-Ordovician strata responded positively to this rapid cooling event and entered the PAZ since ca. 63 Ma. The deep buried samples may be limited affected by climate and water erosion and the accelerated cooling was not obvious in the Late Cenozoic. Collectively, the cooling processes of basement and sedimentary cap in Micangshan-Dabashan tectonic belt were inconsistent. The uplift of the sedimentary area is not completely consistent with that of the basement under thrust and nappe action. The rigid basement was not always continuous and rapidly uplifted or mainly showed as lateral migration in a certain stage because of the different intensities and modes of thrust and nappe action, and the plastic sedimentary strata rapidly uplifted due to intense folding deformation.

2021 ◽  
pp. 108806
Shikha A. Ebrahim ◽  
Ammar M. Bahman ◽  
Khaled Almutairi ◽  
Mohammad A. Alalaimi

Geosphere ◽  
2021 ◽  
Michelle M. Gavel ◽  
Jeffrey M. Amato ◽  
Jason W. Ricketts ◽  
Shari Kelley ◽  
Julian M. Biddle ◽  

The Basin and Range and Rio Grande rift (RGR) are regions of crustal extension in southwestern North America that developed after Laramide-age shortening, but it has not been clear whether onset and duration of extension in these contiguous extensional provinces were the same. We conducted a study of exhumation of fault blocks along a transect from the southeastern Basin and Range to across the RGR in southern New Mexico. A suite of 128 apatite and 63 zircon (U-Th)/He dates (AHe and ZHe), as well as 27 apatite fission-track (AFT) dates, was collected to investigate the cooling and exhumation histories of this region. Collectively, AHe dates range from 3 to 46 Ma, ZHe dates range from 2 to 288 Ma, and AFT dates range from 10 to 34 Ma with average track lengths of 10.8–14.1 µm. First-order spatiotemporal trends in the combined data set suggest that Basin and Range extension was either contemporaneous with Eocene–Oligocene Mogollon-Datil volcanism or occurred before volcanism ended ca. 28 Ma, as shown by trends in ZHe data that suggest reheating to above 240 °C at that time. AHe and ZHe dates from the southern RGR represent a wider range in dates that suggest the main phase of cooling occurred after 25 Ma, and these blocks were not reheated after exhumation. Time-temperature models created by combining AHe, AFT, and ZHe data in the modeling software HeFTy were used to interpret patterns in cooling rate across the study area and further constrain magmatic and/or volcanic versus faulting related cooling. The Chiricahua Mountains and Burro Mountains have an onset of rapid extension, defined as cooling rates in excess of >15 °C/m.y., at ca. 29–17 Ma. In the Cookes Range, a period of rapid extension occurred at ca. 19–7 Ma. In the San Andres Mountains, Franklin Mountains, Caballo Mountains, and Fra Cristobal range, rapid extension occurred from ca. 23 to 9 Ma. Measured average track lengths are longer in Rio Grande rift samples, and ZHe dates of >40 Ma are mostly present east of the Cookes Range, suggesting different levels of exhumation for the zircon partial retention zone and the AFT partial annealing zone. The main phase of fault-block uplift in the southern RGR occurred ca. 25–7 Ma, similar to what has been documented in the northern and central sections of the rift. Although rapid cooling occurred throughout southern New Mexico, thermochronological data from this study with magmatic and volcanic ages suggest rapid cooling was coeval with magmatism in the Basin and Range, whereas in the Rio Grande rift cooling occurred during an amagmatic gap. These observations support a model where an early phase of extension was facilitated by widespread ignimbrite magmatism in the southeastern Basin and Range, whereas in the southern Rio Grande rift, extension started later and continues today and may have occurred between local episodes of basaltic magmatism. These differences in cooling history make the Rio Grande rift tectonically distinct from the Basin and Range. We infer based on geologic and thermochronological evidence that the onset of extension in the southern Rio Grande rift occurred at ca. 27–25 Ma, significantly later than earlier estimates of ca. 35 Ma.

2021 ◽  
Vol 861 (7) ◽  
pp. 072143
Zhongrui Zhao ◽  
Yaoqing Hu ◽  
Peihua Jin ◽  
Yuefei Hu ◽  
Yichen Xu

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