AbstractGraphene based two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) materials have attracted enormous attention because of their extraordinary physical properties. In this study, we explore the temperature and interlayer coupling induced thermal transport across the graphene/2D-SiC vdW interface using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics and transient pump probe methods. We find that the in-plane thermal conductivity κ deviates slightly from the 1/T law at high temperatures. A tunable κ is found with the variation of the interlayer coupling strength χ. The interlayer thermal resistance R across graphene/2D-SiC interface reaches 2.71 $$\times$$
at room temperature and χ = 1, and it reduces steadily with the elevation of system temperature and χ, demonstrating around 41% and 56% reduction with increasing temperature to 700 K and a χ of 25, respectively. We also elucidate the heat transport mechanism by estimating the in-plane and out-of-plane phonon modes. Higher phonon propagation possibility and Umklapp scattering across the interface at high temperatures and increased χ lead to the significant reduction of R. This work unveils the mechanism of heat transfer and interface thermal conductance engineering across the graphene/2D-SiC vdW heterostructure.
The long-term increases in average temperature and intensification of droughts which characterise the current state of the Earth’s climate system have a negative impact on forest ecosystems and can lead to a decrease in their area and deterioration of the living conditions of their components. In the conditions of the Ukrainian Steppe an important environmental, antierosion, water-protective and soil-protective role belongs to the ravine forests. The most valuable component of the ravine forests is presented by natural populations of common oak (Quercus robur L.), which are able to tolerate the arid climate typical of the steppe region. But with global warming, the endurance of this species is changing. It is believed that a significant role in plant adaptation to drought and high temperatures may belong to non-structural carbohydrates. Therefore, it is important to study changes in the concentration of these substances in the leaves of this leading species under the action of adverse hydrothermal conditions. The article analyzes the content and dynamics of soluble sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose) and starch in the leaves of Quercus robur L. under different forest growth conditions of the ravine forest (hygromesophilic (CL2–3), mesoxerophilic (CL1) and xerophilic (CL0)). The research was conducted in the forest in the Viyskove area (steppe zone of Ukraine) in the thalweg and at different levels of slope of southern exposure. Content of glucose, fructose, sugar and starch in Quercus robur leaves was determined. It was found that when exposed to high temperatures and increasing water stress during the vegetation period in xerophilic (CL0–1) and mesoxerophilic (CL1) forest growth conditions, the concentration of both glucose and sucrose in the leaves of Q. robur increases and it becomes much higher than in conditions of more optimal water supply. At the same time, the disaccharide content increases more significantly than that of monosaccharide. The greatest amount of these sugars is observed in the driest months (July, August), when conditions for providing plants with water are the most stressful. When water stress grows the increase in concentration of glucose and sucrose is correlated with reduction of starch content. It has been found that the concentration of fructose in Q. robur leaves in droughty conditions of growing was comparable to more favourable conditions of moisture. In September, there is a decline in the content of all forms of non-structural carbohydrates in the leaves of plants of all variants compared to the previous month, especially in conditions of adverse water supply. Therefore, forest growth conditions do not affect the nature of the dynamics of soluble sugars and starch in the leaves of Q. robur, although they change their quantitative indicators. Based on the protective function of sugars under the action of stressors on plants, we can assume that in conditions of significant lack of moisture in the soil their accumulation in the leaves in areas with mesoxerophilic and xerophilic hygrotopes plays an important role in increasing Q. robur drought resistance.
Candida tropicalis, a xylose-fermenting yeast, has the potential for converting cellulosic biomass to ethanol. Thermotolerant C. tropicalis X-17, which was isolated in Laos, was subjected to repetitive long-term cultivation with a gradual increase in temperature (RLCGT) in the presence of a high concentration of glucose, which exposed cells to various stresses in addition to the high concentration of glucose and high temperatures. The resultant adapted strain demonstrated increased tolerance to ethanol, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural at high temperatures and displayed improvement in fermentation ability at high glucose concentrations and xylose-fermenting ability. Transcriptome analysis revealed the up-regulation of a gene for a glucose transporter of the major facilitator superfamily and genes for stress response and cell wall proteins. Additionally, hydropathy analysis revealed that three genes for putative membrane proteins with multiple membrane-spanning segments were also up-regulated. From these findings, it can be inferred that the up-regulation of genes, including the gene for a glucose transporter, is responsible for the phenotype of the adaptive strain. This study revealed part of the mechanisms of fermentability at high glucose concentrations in C. tropicalis and the results of this study suggest that RLCGT is an effective procedure for improving multistress tolerance.