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2021 ◽  
Vol 303 ◽  
pp. 117584
Author(s):  
Rosa Francesca De Masi ◽  
Antonio Gigante ◽  
Silvia Ruggiero ◽  
Giuseppe Peter Vanoli

Energy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 238 ◽  
pp. 121871
Author(s):  
Jan Richarz ◽  
Sarah Henn ◽  
Tanja Osterhage ◽  
Dirk Müller

2021 ◽  
Vol 152 ◽  
pp. 111718
Author(s):  
Yasutomo Uetsuji ◽  
Yuta Yasuda ◽  
Shugo Yamauchi ◽  
Eiji Matsushima ◽  
Maki Adachi ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (0) ◽  
pp. 1-6
Author(s):  
Rokas Klabis ◽  
Violeta Motuzienė ◽  
Rūta Mikučionienė

The mandatory energy performance certification of new buildings or buildings for sale has been introduced in all Member States in order to achieve European Union’s energy efficiency goals. The certification of buildings sets mandatory requirements for higher energy efficiency buildings’ level of airtightness. However, a bigger problem lies in existing older residential buildings, which are energy inefficient and do not require certification. The unused potential for energy savings observed here is related to the airtightness of single and double apartment residential buildings and energy efficiency related to airtightness of them. Therefore, this work analyses the airtightness of energy class D and lower buildings based on actual airtightness measurements and evaluates the possible energy saving potential associated with the application of airtightness measures based on the example of one inefficient single apartment building. The results show that increase of the airtightness in such buildings to 3 h–1 enables to reduce the energy costs related to the airtightness in Lithuania over a period of 10 years by 0.17 TWh per year.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (10) ◽  
pp. 3031-3056
Author(s):  
Danhua Xin ◽  
James Edward Daniell ◽  
Hing-Ho Tsang ◽  
Friedemann Wenzel

Abstract. To enhance the estimation accuracy of economic loss and casualty in seismic risk assessment, a high-resolution building exposure model is necessary. Previous studies in developing global and regional building exposure models usually use coarse administrative-level (e.g. country or sub-country level) census data as model inputs, which cannot fully reflect the spatial heterogeneity of buildings in large countries like China. To develop a high-resolution residential building stock model for mainland China, this paper uses finer urbanity-level population and building-related statistics extracted from the records in the tabulation of the 2010 population census of the People's Republic of China (hereafter abbreviated as the “2010 census”). In the 2010 census records, for each province, the building-related statistics are categorized into three urbanity levels (urban, township, and rural). To disaggregate these statistics into high-resolution grid level, we need to determine the urbanity attributes of grids within each province. For this purpose, the geo-coded population density profile (with 1 km × 1 km resolution) developed in the 2015 Global Human Settlement Layer (GSHL) project is selected. Then for each province, the grids are assigned with urban, township, or rural attributes according to the population density in the 2015 GHSL profile. Next, the urbanity-level building-related statistics can be disaggregated into grids, and the 2015 GHSL population in each grid is used as the disaggregation weight. Based on the four structure types (steel and reinforced concrete, mixed, brick and wood, other) and five storey classes (1, 2–3, 4–6, 7–9, ≥10) of residential buildings classified in the 2010 census records, we reclassify the residential buildings into 17 building subtypes attached with both structure type and storey class and estimate their unit construction prices. Finally, we develop a geo-coded 1 km × 1 km resolution residential building exposure model for 31 provinces of mainland China. In each 1 km × 1 km grid, the floor areas of the 17 residential building subtypes and their replacement values are estimated. The model performance is evaluated to be satisfactory, and its practicability in seismic risk assessment is also confirmed. Limitations of the proposed model and directions for future improvement are discussed. The whole modelling process presented in this paper is fully reproducible, and all the modelled results are publicly accessible.


Author(s):  
Zhou Meng ◽  
YU Junqi ◽  
Zhao Anjun

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (20) ◽  
pp. 6550
Author(s):  
Seongwon Seo ◽  
Greg Foliente

Since existing residential buildings are a significant global contributor to energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, any serious effort to reduce the actual energy and carbon emissions of the building sector should explicitly address the carbon mitigation challenges and opportunities in the building stock. This research investigates environmentally and economically sustainable retrofit methods to reduce the carbon footprint of existing residential buildings in the City of Greater Dandenong as a case study in Metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. By categorizing energy use into various building age brackets and dwelling types that align with changes in energy regulations, we identified various retrofit prototypes to achieve a targeted 6.5-star and 8-star energy efficiency rating (out of a maximum 10-star rating system). The corresponding operational energy savings through different retrofit options are examined while also considering the quantity of materials required for each option, along with their embodied energy and GHG emissions, thus allowing a more comprehensive lifecycle carbon analysis and exploration of their financial and environmental payback times. Results show that when buildings are upgraded with a combination of insulation and double-glazed windows, the environmental benefits rise faster than the financial benefits over a dwelling’s lifecycle. The size or percentage of a particular dwelling type within the building stock and the remaining lifecycle period are found to be the most important factors influencing the payback periods. Retrofitting the older single detached dwellings shows the greatest potential for lifecycle energy and carbon savings in the case suburb. These findings provide households, industry and governments some guidance on how to contribute most effectively to reduce the carbon footprint of the residential building sector.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yanqing Xu ◽  
Yi-Kai Juan

Objective: The sudden outbreak of COVID-19 has greatly endangered public health and life safety, leading to new changes in people's housing needs. The purpose of this study is to establish design strategies that are suitable for China's Multi-Unit Residential Buildings (MURBs) in the post-pandemic era, and to identify the users' preferences for these strategies.Methods: This study compiles a set of design requirements by means of a literature review and expert interviews. Three hundred ninety-five online and on-site questionnaires, based on the refined Kano model, were distributed to respondents to reveal their preferences for these strategies. The relationship between the different demographic variables, the preferences of design strategies, as well as the housing unit preferences of home-buyers were also verified by means of an actual project.Results: This study summarizes the four dimensions and 26 design strategies of MURBs in China during the post-pandemic era. These strategies are further extracted into 6 highly attractive, 5 high-value-added and 4 critical quality attributes. In terms of demographic variables, males need more social space, and the elderly need less office space and separate bathrooms in the master bedroom. Due to the impact of the epidemic, people with higher education levels are more required to work at home, and the overall demand for a home working environment is also higher.Conclusion: The home-buyers' preference survey reveals that the housing unit designed based on the refined Kano model is more attractive to home-buyers. The proposed approach can help to provide important and customized decisions to design firms, housing developers, and the government for MURBs planning and strategy formulation in the post-pandemic era in China. More in-depth user surveys in other regions and investigations into the cost assessment of these strategies might be further conducted in the future.


Author(s):  
Réka Mándoki ◽  
John Orr

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (20) ◽  
pp. 6466
Author(s):  
Marlene Ofelia Sanchez-Escobar ◽  
Julieta Noguez ◽  
Jose Martin Molina-Espinosa ◽  
Rafael Lozano-Espinosa ◽  
Genoveva Vargas-Solar

Bottom-up energy models are considered essential tools to support policy design of electricity end-use efficiency. However, in the literature, no study analyzes their contribution to support policy design of electricity end-use efficiency, the modeling techniques used to build them, and the policy instruments supported by them. This systematic review fills that gap by identifying the current capability of bottom-up energy models to support specific policy instruments. In the research, we review 192 publications from January 2015 to June 2020 to finally select 20 for further examination. The articles are analyzed quantitatively in terms of techniques, model characteristics, and applied policies. The findings of the study reveal that: (1) bottom-up energy models contribute to the support of policy design of electricity end-use efficiency with the application of specific best practices (2) bottom-up energy models do not provide a portfolio of analytical methods which constraint their capability to support policy design (3) bottom-up energy models for residential buildings have limited policy support and (4) bottom-up energy models’ design reveals a lack of inclusion of key energy efficiency metrics to support decision-making. This study’s findings can help researchers and energy modelers address these limitations and create new models following best practices.


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