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2021 ◽  
Vol 233 (5) ◽  
pp. e95
Michael E. Zenilman ◽  
Alfred C. Winkler ◽  
John G. Hunter

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
John Kwaku Mensah Mawutor ◽  
Freeman Christian Gborse ◽  
Ernest Sogah ◽  
Barbara Deladem Mensah

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of financial development on the Doing Business and capital flight contagion. And further, this study determines the threshold beyond which financial development reduces capital flight. Design/methodology/approach A two-step system generalized methods of moment empirical model with linear interaction between Doing Business and financial development was estimated. This study used data on 26 countries over 12 years (2004–2015). Findings The main results indicated that, although Doing Business had a significant positive effect on capital flight, the interactive term had a significant adverse effect on capital flight. This outcome suggests that to reduce capital flight, a well-reformed and efficient business environment should be embedded with an efficient, stable and well-developed financial sector. In addition, the authors found only South Africa has a robust financial framework beyond the threshold of 0.383, whereas Congo, Rep., Rwanda, Malawi, Sierra Leone and Congo, Dem. Rep. had the weakest financial system and sector in Sub-Saharan Africa. Research limitations/implications This study recommends that policymakers should initiate policies that would enhance financial development. Originality/value This study’s main contributions are that the authors estimated the threshold beyond which financial development helps the business environment reduce the rate of capital flight. Further, the authors have shown that financial development is a catalyst to propel the deterioration powers of the business environment against capital flight. Also, the authors have estimated the long-run effect of the variables of interest on capital flight.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Jooh Lee ◽  
He-Boong Kwon

Purpose This study aims to explore the strategic impact of R&D and export activity on the diverse dimensions of US manufacturing firms’ performance. It also explores, using a predictive analytic model, the interactive synergistic effect that R&D and exports have on firm performance. Design/methodology/approach This study presents an innovative two-stage regression-neural network approach. Complementing conventional statistical analysis, the predictive backpropagation neural network explores the relative impact of R&D and exports and their synergistic effect on firm performance. Findings This study demonstrates the significant and positive effect of R&D and export strategy/activity on the economic performance of leading US manufacturing firms, particularly on their market-based performance (i.e. sustained growth rate or SGR). Furthermore, this study finds that the synergistic effect of R&D and exports on short-term performance (i.e. return on investment) is positive in high-tech firms but negative in low-tech firms. However, the synergistic effect on SGR is increasingly positive regardless of the level of technology. Originality/value In addition to traditional statistical analysis, this study uniquely investigates the relative importance of selected strategic variables, along with R&D and export activity and their differential synergistic effects, for firms’ economic performance in contrasting industry settings (high-tech vs low-tech).

2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (6) ◽  
pp. 1-23
Yidan Huang ◽  
Jun Ma ◽  
Chia-Huei Wu ◽  
Shu Yang

Face emojis are regularly used in reviews on online shopping sites to add richness and/or levity to the text. However, few researchers have investigated the use of face emojis in consumer reviews. This paper examined the effects of the number of face emojis (none, one and three) in user-generated reviews (UGRs) on trustworthiness and purchase intention. We found that the number of face emojis in UGRs has a profound impact on consumers. A greater number of face emojis correlates with a greater degree of review trustworthiness. However, the effect of emojis on purchase intention changes depending on the situation. Additionally, when there is a profile picture, consumers pay more attention to it, and the positive effect due to face emojis disappears. Moreover, the gift giver-recipient relationship moderates the effect of face emojis on user decisions. The findings of our work have theoretical and managerial implications with respect to providing a new means of understanding consumer perceptions of products, from which business can benefit by improving sales and policies.

В.А Герега ◽  
А.В Суслов ◽  
В.А Комаров ◽  
В.М Грабов ◽  
Е.В Демидов ◽  

The study of the electronic properties of ultrathin films of pure bismuth and bismuth-antimony alloys is of interest, since an increase in conductivity with decreasing sample thickness was found. This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the structure, electrical, galvanomagnetic and thermoelectric properties of pure bismuth and Bi1−x Sbx thin films (x = 0.05 and 0.12) on a mica substrate in the thickness range of 10−30 nm. An increase in the conductivity with a decrease in the thickness of the samples was found. It may be due to the presence of topologically protected surface states. It is shown that the features of the manifestation of this effect are significantly influenced by the alloys band structure. The form of the temperature dependences of the Seebeck coefficient casts doubt on the fact that surface states have a positive effect on the thermoelectric efficiency of thin bismuth-antimony films. However, the detection of a positive thermoelectric power in Bi0.88Sb0.12 samples can become an important factor for searching for the possibility of creating a p-branch of thermoelectric converters.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (5) ◽  
pp. 5-15
R. Fedyuk ◽  
D.-Y. Yoo

the creation of an environmentally friendly building material to protect the human environment can only be carried out from the position of a transdisciplinarity approach, taking into account modern achievements in geomimetics and micromechanics of composite media. A wide range of basalt-fiber-reinforced concrete based on composite binders has been developed, which have increased characteristics of impermeability and durability under extreme operating conditions. The nature of the influence of the composition and manufacturing technology of cement composites on the pore structure of the composite has been established, which has a positive effect on the charac-teristics of gas, water and vapor permeability. High early strength was obtained, which allows the use of materials for operational repair and construction in emergency situations. The positive influence of the composition of the developed composite on the performances has been proved. The water resistance of the modified composite provides a water pressure of 2 MPa for 148 hours, which corresponds to the W18 grade (for the control sample – W8), the frost resistance grade – F300. It was found that the water absorption of the modified concrete samples was lower than that of the control sample, which is explained by the decrease in the pore structure index λ by 28.4 times, and the average pore diameter by 3.05 times. The total pore volume of the modified concrete was lower and decreased with increasing dose of nanosilica.

2021 ◽  
pp. 073168442110517
Ali Fazli ◽  
Denis Rodrigue

In this work, recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE) was compounded with regenerated tire rubber (RR) (35–80 wt.%) and reinforced with recycled tire textile fiber (RTF) (20 wt.%) as a first step. The materials were compounded by melt extrusion, injection molded, and characterized in terms of morphological, mechanical, physical, and thermal properties. Although, replacement of the rubber phase with RTF compensated for tensile/flexural moduli losses of rHDPE/RR/RTF blends because of the more rigid nature of fibers increasing the composites stiffness, the impact strength substantially decreased. So, a new approach is proposed for impact modification by adding a blend of maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (MAPE)/RR (70/30) into a fiber-reinforced rubberized composite. As in this case, a more homogeneous distribution of the fillers was observed due to better compatibility between MAPE, rHDPE, and RR. The tensile properties were improved as the elongation at break increased up to 173% because of better interfacial adhesion. Impact modification of the resulting thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) composites based on rHDPE/(RR/MAPE)/RTF was successfully performed (improved toughness by 60%) via encapsulation of the rubber phase by MAPE forming a thick/soft interphase decreasing interfacial stress concentration slowing down fracture. Finally, the thermal stability of rubberized fiber-reinforced TPE also revealed the positive effect of MAPE addition on molecular entanglements and strong bonding yielding lower weight loss, while the microstructure and crystallinity degree did not significantly change up to 60 wt.% RR/MAPE (70/30).

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (21) ◽  
pp. 6296
Anton Naumov ◽  
Evgenii Rylkov ◽  
Pavel Polyakov ◽  
Fedor Isupov ◽  
Andrey Rudskoy ◽  

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) was utilized to butt−join 2024–T4 aluminum alloy plates of 1.9 mm thickness, using tools with conical and tapered hexagonal probe profiles. The characteristic effects of FSW using tools with tapered hexagonal probe profiles include an increase in the heat input and a significant modification of material flow, which have a positive effect on the metallurgical characteristics and mechanical performance of the weld. The differences in mechanical properties were interpreted through macrostructural changes and mechanical properties of the welded joints, which were supported by numerical simulation results on temperature distribution and material flow. The material flow resulting from the tapered hexagonal probe was more complicated than that of the conical probe. If in the first case, the dynamic viscosity and strain rate are homogeneously distributed around the probe, but in the case of the tapered hexagonal probe tool, the zones with maximum values of strain rates and minimum values of dynamic viscosity are located along the six tapered edges of the probe.

2021 ◽  
Ruifen Ren ◽  
Lingling Zhang ◽  
Hao Zhou ◽  
Xueru Jiang ◽  
Yan Liu

Abstract Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), as two common active molecules, are both involved in the changes of viability after liquid nitrogen (LN) stored, but the relationship between these two molecules has not been involved in plant cryopreservation up to now. In this study, the pollen of Paeonia lactiflora 'Fen Yu Nu' with significantly decreased viability after cryopreservation as materials, by studied the effects of the two regulators on each other and their biosynthesis and scavenging indexes, to explore the interaction between ROS and NO in pollen cryopreservation and its mechanism.The results showed that: the contents of ROS and NO increased significantly with the decrease of pollen viability after cryopreservation, and regulated ROS and NO content had a significant effect on post-LN pollen viability; the changes of ROS content positively regulated the endogenous NO content, and had significant effects on the expression level of NOS-like enzyme regulation gene CSU2 and its activity; while regulated NO had a positive effect on ROS content, and significantly affected the expression of NADPH oxidase and its regulatory gene RBOHJ, and also significantly affected catalase (CAT) and the substrate related to ascorbic acid (AsA)- glutathione (GSH) antioxidant cycle system. These results indicate that there was a positive interaction between ROS and NO in the pollen cryopreservation, NOS biosynthesis pathway was one of the ROS regulated NO pathways, NADPH oxidase, CAT and AsA-GSH antioxidant cycle system were the key sites for NO regulated ROS content.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Qin Guo ◽  
Zhong Di ◽  
Hong-fang Tian ◽  
Quan-ai Zhang

Phantom limb pain (PLP) and phantom limb sensation (PLS) are common and distressing sequelae of amputation. Current pain management following amputation is challenging and unsatisfying. In this case study, a 74-year-old woman underwent above-knee amputation because of the rhabdomyosarcoma in the right leg. Despite several analgesics, pain was poorly controlled. The phantom limb pain and sensation were immediately reduced by the contralateral acupuncture, and abolished after the third session with no side-effects, no relapse during the next 9 months. Contralateral acupuncture showed positive effect on PLP and PLS in this case, but more robust evidence would be needed to support the efficacy of this treatment technique for indication.

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