tracing method
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2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 168781402110729
Wanhua Zhao ◽  
Zhuang Liu ◽  
Yong Yang ◽  
Zheng Zou ◽  
Ruizhi Shu ◽  

By considering the uncertainness of initial measuring position of encoders and signal sidebands caused by the fault gear pair, this paper presented a new comprehensive harmonic analysis method for the transmission error of gear hobbing machine. Based on that, a test platform was established, in which two circle grating encoders were connected to the hob spindle and workpiece spindle respectively. With the help of this new harmonic analysis method as well as the self-developed test platform, a new improved transmission error fault diagnosis method was developed for the gear hobbing machines. To verify its accountability, a case study was conducted on a YS-type gear hobbing machine. According to the spectrum amplitude comparison and the analysis of harmonic frequency distribution, the fault transmission gear pair was successfully located. This improved transmission error source tracing method was very helpful for quantifying both the manufacturing qualities and assembly qualities of parts and locating potential error source for new gear hobbing machines.

Patrick Aldrin-Kirk ◽  
Malin Åkerblom ◽  
Tiago Cardoso ◽  
Sara Nolbrant ◽  
Andrew F. Adler ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 72 ◽  
pp. 113-122
Amir Mustaqim Majdi ◽  
Seyed Yaser Moussavi Alashloo ◽  
Nik Nur Anis Amalina Nik Mohd Hassan ◽  
Abdul Rahim Md Arshad ◽  

Traveltime is one of the propagating wave’s components. As the wave propagates further, the traveltime increases. It can be computed by solving wave equation of the ray path or the eikonal wave equation. Accurate method of computing traveltimes will give a significant impact on enhancing the output of seismic forward modeling and migration. In seismic forward modeling, computation of the wave’s traveltime locally by ray tracing method leads to low resolution of the resulting seismic image, especially when the subsurface is having a complex geology. However, computing the wave’s traveltime with a gridding scheme by finite difference methods able to overcomes the problem. This paper aims to discuss the ability of ray tracing and fast marching method of finite difference in obtaining a seismic image that have more similarity with its subsurface model. We illustrated the results of the traveltime computation by both methods in form of ray path projection and wavefront. We employed these methods in forward modeling and compared both resulting seismic images. Seismic migration is executed as a part of quality control (QC). We used a synthetic velocity model which based on a part of Malay Basin geology structure. Our findings shows that the seismic images produced by the application of fast marching finite difference method has better resolution than ray tracing method especially on deeper part of subsurface model.

2021 ◽  
Weizhao Chen ◽  
Qiongping Zheng ◽  
Qiaoying Huang ◽  
Shanshan Ma ◽  
Mingtao Li

Lineage reprograming of resident glia cells to induced dopaminergic neurons (iDAns) holds attractive prospect for cell-replacement therapy of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, whether repressing polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) could truly achieve efficient astrocyte-to-iDAn conversion in substantia nigra and striatum aroused widespread controversy. Although reporter+ iDAns were observed by two groups after delivering adeno-associated virus (AAV) expressing a reporter with shRNA or Crispr-CasRx to repress astroglial PTB, the possibility of AAV leaking into endogenous DAns could not be excluded without using a reliable lineage tracing method. By adopting stringent lineage tracing strategy, two other studies showed that neither knockdown nor genetic deletion of quiescent astroglial PTB fails to obtain iDAns under physiological condition. However, the role of reactive astrocyte might be underestimated since upon brain injury, reactive astrocyte could acquire certain stem cell hallmarks which may facilitate the lineage conversion process. Therefore, whether reactive astrocytes could be genuinely converted to DAns after PTB repression in a PD model needs further validation. In this study, we used Aldh1l1-CreERT2-mediated specific astrocyte-lineage tracing method to investigate whether reactive astrocytes could be converted to DAns in the 6-OHDA PD model. However, we found that no astrocyte-originated DAns was generated after effective knockdown of astroglial PTB either in the substantia nigra or in the striatum, while AAV leakage to nearby neurons was observed. Our results further confirmed that repressing PTB is unable to convert astrocytes to DA neurons no matter in physiological or PD-related pathological conditions.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-22
Muhammad Uzair ◽  
Naveed Rehman ◽  
Muhammad Asif

Abstract This study developed a methodology for determining the intercept factor (γ) and reports the effects of varying the design parameters, within realistic ranges, on the optical performance of parabolic trough collectors (PTC). The design equations account for the aperture width of the concentrator, the geometric concentration ratio, rim-angle and misalignment of the receiver, characterized by the radial and angular offsets. The Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) based ray-tracing method was used. Validation of the method was performed by comparing the results obtained by tracing a single ray with measurements obtained in a 2D drafting program. Then, parametric analyses were performed to determine the effects of changing the radial and angular offset, geometric concentration ratio and rim-angle on the percentage change in intercept factor (γΔ) with respect to the γ of a PTC with a perfectly aligned receiver. Finally, contour plots depicting the γ of various standard troughs over the range of radial and angular offsets were plotted, compared and discussed. An online tool is also presented to help designers and researchers analyze these effects quickly by providing the design parameters.

2021 ◽  
Vol 42 (Supplement_1) ◽  
L.S Chen ◽  
Y.Y Oon ◽  
C Rawlings ◽  
K Sabeng ◽  
S Adam ◽  

Abstract Background The common method of assessing left ventricle (LV) volumes and ejection fraction (EF) is hand-tracing Biplane Simpson method. Alternatively, ultrasound vendors offer different semi-automated LV endocardial border detection software with anatomical intelligence to assess LV volumes and EF. By using speckle-tracking technique, this software tracks the LV endocardium throughout the cardiac cycle and computes the LV volumes in every image frame using the disk summation method from which a volume-curve is generated, and the EF is calculated using the maximum and minimum volumes obtained. Data on the performance of this method in comparison with the hand-tracing Biplane Simpson method in daily clinical practice is scarce. Purpose To determine the accuracy of LV volumes and EF using semi-automated LV endocardial detection tracing, and to compare the reproducibility of this method with the hand-tracing Biplane Simpson method, among operators with varying level of experience in echocardiography. Methods This was a single center retrospective observational study, conducted in year 2020. 127 patients, aged >18 years, who underwent clinically indicated transthoracic echocardiography were recruited. The echocardiographic images were analyzed independently in a blinded fashion by 3 operators – a sonographer, a fellow-in-training and a cardiologist specialized in echocardiography. The LV volumes and EF were first measured using hand-tracing Biplane Simpson method, then repeated using semi-automated tracing at a different time and the operator were blinded to the initial hand-tracing measurements. Results The mean age of patients was 50±16 years, 35.4% were male, mean body surface area was 1.62±0.18m2, 92.1% were in sinus rhythm, and 61.4% had good acoustic window. Table 1 shows the LV end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and EF, measured using different method, by the 3 operators. There were excellent correlation and agreement between semi-automated tracing measurements and hand-tracing measurements of LV EDV (r=0.985, LOA [mean ± 1.96 SD] 16.9 ml, ICC 0.991), ESV (r=0.990, LOA 12.7 ml, ICC 0.994) and EF (r=0.962, LOA 7.43%, ICC 0.967) by experienced cardiologist. The limit of agreement (LOA) between cardiologist and sonographer for semi-automated tracing measurement of LV EDV, ESV and EF were 29.13 ml, 19.74 ml and 9.25% respectively, which was comparable with that of hand-tracing measurement. The agreement between cardiologist and fellow-in-training for semi-automated tracing measurement of LV volumes and EF was slightly better than hand-tracing method, with a LOA of 25.60 ml, 17.48 ml and 7.08%, for EDV, ESV and EF respectively (Table 2). Conclusion In daily clinical practice, measurement of LV volumes and EF using semi-automated LV endocardial tracing method is accurate and demonstrates comparable reproducibility with hand-tracing Biplane Simpson method among operators with different level of experience in echocardiography. FUNDunding Acknowledgement Type of funding sources: None.

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