The mechanoluminescent materials attract increasing attention of scientists due to their capability of visualizing the mechanical stresses and deformations experienced by them. The deformations of materials arising under the action of powerful laser pulses were studied. The composite mechanoluminescent materials based on the polymer and phosphor powder were used for visualization and registration of deformation evolution dynamics. The mechanoluminescent materials were deposited on the surface of the materials under study. It has been shown that the spatial distribution of glow intensity of the mechanoluminescent layer and the rate of its change make possible judging the value and rate of material deformation under laser pulses.
The environment can play an important role in animal communication by affecting signal transmission and detection. Variation in the signalling environment is expected to be especially pronounced in widely distributed species, potentially affecting how their signals are detected. Such environmental variability is presumably relevant for sedentary females of a nocturnal capital breeder, the European common glow-worm (Lampyris noctiluca), which produce green light during the night to attract flying males to mate. Being widely distributed in Europe, glow-worm populations are exposed to both rapidly descending, darker summer nights in the south, and slowly dimming, brighter summer nights further north, with the latter potentially posing challenges to the visibility of the female glow. To test how female signalling is affected by latitude, we sampled glowing females during summer nights along a latitudinal gradient in Finland, Northern Europe, and used a novel apparatus to measure the intensity and peak wavelength (hue/colour) of their glow. Surprisingly, females at higher latitudes, similar to those at lower latitudes, were commonly glowing during the brightest (and hence the shortest) nights of the year. Females also glowed brighter in more northern areas, partly due to their larger body size, whereas the colour of their glow was not associated with latitude. Since females glow even during midsummer, independent of latitude, the increase in glow intensity at higher latitudes presumably serves to maintain signal visibility in brighter signalling conditions. Overall, these findings highlight the influence of environmental conditions on the evolution of sexual signals, especially in the context of species distribution range.
When environmental conditions impact signal transmission and perception, local conditions can have a crucial role in shaping animal communication and signal evolution. To analyse how dark-dependant common glow-worm females cope with variable nocturnal light environments, we used a novel apparatus, presumably not applied to living animals before, to measure female glow intensity at various latitudes along a latitudinal gradient. Interestingly, females did not avoid signalling during the brightest summer nights, but instead, their glow intensity and body size both increased with latitude. These findings suggest that females can ensure visibility to mate-searching males over a range of local conditions. Our study therefore shows how females can adapt to environmental constraints on signal visibility, and how the expression of sexual signals is shaped not only by social interactions but also by the signalling environment.
The article deals with the results of studied structure features of reservoirs in productive zeolite-containing rocks. We have established that the content of pelite fraction and carbonate content have impact on the deterioration of reservoir properties, and the development of zeolitization is characteristic for zones of improved reservoir properties.It is shown that the presence of the core glow in the ultraviolet light for zeolite-containing rocks doesn’t guarantee the receipt of the product during testing and will depend on the thickness ratio with different intensity of luminescence. The change in wettability of the rock in the reservoir conditions, an increase in the share of residual oil, and the presence of oil in the dead-end pores are the most likely explanation for the described situation. If the core luminescence is «weak», the product from the reservoir can only be obtained by applying special impact methods.