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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Iain Perry ◽  
Ifan B. Jâms ◽  
Roser Casas-Mulet ◽  
Josefina Hamutoko ◽  
Angela Marchbank ◽  
...  

By identifying fragments of DNA in the environment, eDNA approaches present a promising tool for monitoring biodiversity in a cost-effective way. This is particularly pertinent for countries where traditional morphological monitoring has been sparse. The first step to realising the potential of eDNA is to develop methodologies that are adapted to local conditions. Here, we test field and laboratory eDNA protocols (aqueous and sediment samples) in a range of semi-arid ecosystems in Namibia. We successfully gathered eDNA data on a broad suite of organisms at multiple trophic levels (including algae, invertebrates and bacteria) but identified two key challenges to the implementation of eDNA methods in the region: 1) high turbidity requires a tailored sampling technique and 2) identification of taxa by eDNA methods is currently constrained by a lack of reference data. We hope this work will guide the deployment of eDNA biomonitoring in the arid ecosystems of Namibia and neighbouring countries.


Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 140
Author(s):  
Muxi Cheng ◽  
Bruce McCarl ◽  
Chengcheng Fei

Globally, the climate is changing, and this has implications for livestock. Climate affects livestock growth rates, milk and egg production, reproductive performance, morbidity, and mortality, along with feed supply. Simultaneously, livestock is a climate change driver, generating 14.5% of total anthropogenic Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. Herein, we review the literature addressing climate change and livestock, covering impacts, emissions, adaptation possibilities, and mitigation strategies. While the existing literature principally focuses on ruminants, we extended the scope to include non-ruminants. We found that livestock are affected by climate change and do enhance climate change through emissions but that there are adaptation and mitigation actions that can limit the effects of climate change. We also suggest some research directions and especially find the need for work in developing country settings. In the context of climate change, adaptation measures are pivotal to sustaining the growing demand for livestock products, but often their relevance depends on local conditions. Furthermore, mitigation is key to limiting the future extent of climate change and there are a number of possible strategies.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Edward Higgins ◽  
Thomas B. Parr ◽  
Caryn C. Vaughn

Microbiomes are increasingly recognized as widespread regulators of function from individual organism to ecosystem scales. However, the manner in which animals influence the structure and function of environmental microbiomes has received considerably less attention. Using a comparative field study, we investigated the relationship between freshwater mussel microbiomes and environmental microbiomes. We used two focal species of unionid mussels, Amblema plicata and Actinonaias ligamentina, with distinct behavioral and physiological characteristics. Mussel microbiomes, those of the shell and biodeposits, were less diverse than both surface and subsurface sediment microbiomes. Mussel abundance was a significant predictor of sediment microbial community composition, but mussel species richness was not. Our data suggest that local habitat conditions which change dynamically along streams, such as discharge, water turnover, and canopy cover, work in tandem to influence environmental microbial community assemblages at discreet rather than landscape scales. Further, mussel burrowing activity and mussel shells may provide habitat for microbial communities critical to nutrient cycling in these systems.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 792
Author(s):  
Christin Baumgärtel ◽  
Thea Lautenschläger ◽  
Mazekana H. G. Panzo ◽  
Francisco Afonso ◽  
Christoph Neinhuis ◽  
...  

High metal contents of acidic soils from sub-Saharan Africa often prevent the cultivation of crops and lead to a low livestock yield. The carbohydrate rich diet of the Angolan population is low in minerals and vitamins, resulting in various deficiency syndromes and a high child mortality rate. Eight traditionally utilized plants (Anisophyllea quangensis, Annona stenophylla subsp. cuneata, Canarium schweinfurthii, Eugenia malangensis, Landolphia lanceolata, Raphionacme madiensis, Tristemma mauritianum, Vitex madiensis subsp. madiensis) with nutritional value for the Angolan population were analyzed for their soil and growing conditions. The species are adapted to the local conditions and can serve as crops for the unfavorable soils of the province Uíge. Chemical and physical characteristics of the uppermost soil (0–5 cm) and in 30 cm depth were analyzed. The plant-available macro-and micronutrients were determined using Mehlich 3 extraction. Data are completed with leaf tissue analyses, examining the uptake of minerals. As aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn) are plant-available in high amounts, local plants evolved mechanisms dealing with those metals. These Al accumulators with foliar contents above 1000 mg/kg are Anisophyllea quangensis (7884 mg/kg), Landolphia lanceolata (6809 mg/kg), Tristemma mauritianum (4674 mg/kg), and Eugenia malangensis (13,989 mg/kg). All four species bear edible fruits with nutritional potential. The domestication and commercialization of those plants seem to be promising, utilizing local soils without expensive amelioration techniques.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 59
Author(s):  
Hongjiao Qu ◽  
Junli Li ◽  
Weiyin Wang ◽  
Wenwen Xin ◽  
Cheng Zhou ◽  
...  

Natural disasters occur frequently causing huge economic losses and reduced grain production. Therefore, it is important to thoroughly explore the spatial correlations between grain, disaster, and the economy. Based on inter-provincial panel data in China in 2019, this study integrates complex network and co-occurrence theory into a coupled grain–disaster–economy (GDE) multilayer network, which provides a new perspective to further explore the spatial correlation between these three systems. We identify the spatial coupled characteristics of the GDE multilayer network using three aspects: degree, centrality, and community detection. The research results show the following: (1) Provinces in the major grain-producing regions have a stronger role in allocating and controlling grain resources, and the correlation between grain and disasters in these provinces is stronger and more prone to disasters. Whereas provinces in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei economic zone, and the Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta economic zones, such as Beijing, Tianjin, Jiangsu, Shanghai, and Zhejiang, have a high level of economic development, thereby a stronger ability to allocate economic resources. (2) The economic subsystem assumes a more important, central role compared with the grain and disaster subsystems in the formation and development of the coupled GDE multilayer network, with a stronger coordination for the co-development between the complex grain, disaster, and economy systems in the nodal provinces of the network. (3) The community modularity of the coupled GDE multilayer network is significantly higher than that of the three single-layer networks, indicating a more reasonable community division after coupling the three subsystems. The identification of the spatial characteristics of GDE using multilayer network analysis offers a new perspective on taking various measures to improve the joint sustainable development of grain, disaster, and the economy in different regions of China according to local conditions.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Richard Ansong Omari ◽  
Kun Yuan ◽  
Khoa Trinh Anh ◽  
Moritz Reckling ◽  
Mosab Halwani ◽  
...  

Commercial inoculants are often used to inoculate field-grown soybean in Europe. However, nodulation efficiencies in these areas are often low. To enhance biological nitrogen (N) fixation and increase domestic legume production, indigenous strains that are adapted to local conditions could be used to develop more effective inoculants. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of locally isolated Bradyrhizobium strains to enhance soybean productivity in different growing conditions of Northeast Germany. Three indigenous Bradyrhizobium isolates (GMF14, GMM36, and GEM96) were tested in combination with different soybean cultivars of different maturity groups and quality characteristics in one field trial and two greenhouse studies. The results showed a highly significant strain × cultivar interactions on nodulation response. Independent of the Bradyrhizobium strain, inoculated plants in the greenhouse showed higher nodulation, which corresponded with an increased N uptake than that in field conditions. There were significantly higher nodule numbers and nodule dry weights following GMF14 and GMM36 inoculation in well-watered soil, but only minor differences under drought conditions. Inoculation of the soybean cultivar Merlin with the strain GEM96 enhanced nodulation but did not correspond to an increased grain yield under field conditions. USDA110 was consistent in improving the grain yield of soybean cultivars Sultana and Siroca. On the other hand, GMM36 inoculation to Sultana and GEM96 inoculation to Siroca resulted in similar yields. Our results demonstrate that inoculation of locally adapted soybean cultivars with the indigenous isolates improves nodulation and yield attributes. Thus, to attain optimal symbiotic performance, the strains need to be matched with specific cultivars.


Leadership ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 174271502110633
Author(s):  
Selen Kars-Unluoglu ◽  
Carol Jarvis ◽  
Hugo Gaggiotti

Characterising COVID-19 pandemic as a ‘state of exception’, we might expect great hero models of leadership to come to the fore. Instead, drawing on a thematic analysis of 246 news articles, this paper illustrates something different: communities, companies, individuals picked-up the leadership mantle but were reluctant to frame their practices under a leadership rhetoric. The paper explores spontaneous initiatives and leaderly actions that were made visible during the pandemic and proposes practice-based implications for redrawing leadership conceptualisations. These practices, coined as unleading, are characterised under four dimensions: unconditionality and social intention; purposeful action in the absence of an achievement motivation; sensing and attending to local conditions; and confident connecting and collaborating. The analysis and discussion of the four dimensions affirm that while leading and unleading are always present when organising, they are more or less visible and practiced depending on organisational, social and individual circumstances. The paper concludes by surfacing questions and reflections for the future of unleading and implications for leadership theorising and practice.


2022 ◽  
Vol 53 (1) ◽  
pp. 67-83
Author(s):  
Virpi Turkulainen ◽  
Inkeri Ruuska

One of the focal challenges in managing global operations is how to utilize existing knowledge to avoid reinventing the wheel, yet to critically assess current knowledge and develop new knowledge when adapting to local conditions. Research indicates that successful organizations manage these tensions by developing ambidexterity. We elaborate on contextual ambidexterity—one specific form of ambidexterity—in the global operations expansion program at Neste. We conclude with illustrations of tools used to facilitate alignment and adaptability over time. Interestingly, different tools are used in different phases of the program. Moreover, the emphasis cycles between alignment and adaptability.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 659
Author(s):  
Claudio Manna ◽  
Valentina Lacconi ◽  
Giuseppe Rizzo ◽  
Antonino De Lorenzo ◽  
Micol Massimiani

Obstetric and newborn outcomes of assisted reproductive technology (ART) pregnancies are associated with significative prevalence of maternal and neonatal adverse health conditions, such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. These data are interpreted as anomalies in placentation involving a dysregulation of several molecular factors and pathways. It is not clear which extent of the observed placental alterations are the result of ART and which originate from infertility itself. These two aspects probably act synergically for the final obstetric risk. Data show that mechanisms of inappropriate trophoblast invasion and consequent altered vascular remodeling sustain several clinical conditions, leading to obstetric and perinatal risks often found in ART pregnancies, such as preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction and placenta previa or accreta. The roles of factors such as VEGF, GATA3, PIGF, sFLT-1, sEndoglin, EGFL7, melatonin and of ART conditions, such as short or long embryo cultures, trophectoderm biopsy, embryo cryopreservation, and supraphysiologic endometrium preparation, are discussed. Inflammatory local conditions and epigenetic influence on embryos of ART procedures are important research topics since they may have important consequences on obstetric risk. Prevention and treatment of these conditions represent new frontiers for clinicians and biologists involved in ART, and synergic actions with researchers at molecular levels are advocated.


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