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2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Erika Galipó ◽  
Matthew A. Dixon ◽  
Claudio Fronterrè ◽  
Zulma M. Cucunubá ◽  
Maria-Gloria Basáñez ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Cysticercosis is a zoonotic neglected tropical disease (NTD) that affects humans and pigs following the ingestion of Taenia solium eggs. Human cysticercosis poses a substantial public health burden in endemic countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) aims to target high-endemicity settings with enhanced interventions in 17 countries by 2030. Between 2008 and 2010, Colombia undertook a national baseline serosurvey of unprecedented scale, which led to an estimated seroprevalence of T. solium cysticercus antibodies among the general population of 8.6%. Here, we use contemporary geostatistical approaches to analyse this unique dataset with the aim of understanding the spatial distribution and risk factors associated with human cysticercosis in Colombia to inform how best to target intervention strategies. Methods We used a geostatistical model to estimate individual and household risk factors associated with seropositivity to T. solium cysticercus antibodies from 29,253 people from 133 municipalities in Colombia. We used both independent and spatially structured random effects at neighbourhood/village and municipality levels to account for potential clustering of exposure to T. solium. We present estimates of the distribution and residual correlation of seropositivity at the municipality level. Results High seroprevalence was identified in municipalities located in the north and south of Colombia, with spatial correlation in seropositivity estimated up to approximately 140 km. Statistically significant risk factors associated with seropositivity to T. solium cysticercus were related to age, sex, educational level, socioeconomic status, use of rainwater, consumption of partially cooked/raw pork meat and possession of dogs. Conclusions In Colombia, the distribution of human cysticercosis is influenced by socioeconomic considerations, education and environmental factors related to the spread of T. solium eggs. This information can be used to tailor national intervention strategies, such as targeting spatial hotspots and more highly exposed groups, including displaced people and women. Large-scale seroprevalence surveys accompanied by geospatial mapping are an essential step towards reaching the WHO’s 2021‒2030 NTD roadmap targets. Graphical Abstract


MAUSAM ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 47-56
Author(s):  
K. L. SINHA

The spatial distribution of rainfall in accordance with the practice prevalent in the India Meteorological Department, viz., "few falls", "local" and "widespread" during the four seasons and the whole in the different meteorological subdivisions of the pre-partitioned India have been studied with a view, to find any common features that may exist between the three types of rainfall distribution. Distribution of total number of rainy days in the various meteorological subdivisions during the four seasons and the year have been discussed.


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 109-122
Author(s):  
El Mzouri M.A. ◽  
Samir K. ◽  
Chlaida M. ◽  
El Mzouri E.

Morocco has been experiencing significant climatic disturbances in recent decades. The climate change issue arises mainly in terms of water deficits induced by the decrease in rainfall received and the increase in temperature. The objective of this study is to characterize the drought temporal and spatial distribution and severity within local agro-climatic zones of Settat Province. The study area extends over a distance of 85 km from North to South and concerns three agro-climatic zones. The Standardized Precipitation Index was used for drought analysis and characterization in the three zones for 107 years of rainfall data. Results show that numbers of normal average years are declining, dry years are increasing and humid years are declining in three zones. However, the SPI changes over time are not similar for the three zones, that is, the rainfall deficit is taking place more in the “Favorable Rain-fed” zone and to a low degree in the “Intermediate Rain-fed” but not in the ‘Less Favorable” zone.


MAUSAM ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 58 (2) ◽  
pp. 153-160
Author(s):  
SAMARENDRA KARMAKAR ◽  
MD. MAHBUB ALAM

Attempts have been made to compute the precipitable water content of the troposphere, weighted average water vapour and to correlate these parameters with different instability indices and also with the next 24-hr rainfall, next 24-hr maximum rainfall and next 24-hr country averaged rainfall in order to predicting rainfall due to nor’westers in Bangladesh. It has been found that the maximum number of nor’westers occur when the precipitable water is 25-45 mm hr-1 between 1000 and 500 hPa, the maximum frequency being 48 in the range of 35-45 mm hr-1. The spatial distribution of precipitable water indicates that the maximum precipitable water is concentrated over the area near the places of nor’westers. The specific humidity has been found to increase on the dates of occurrence of nor’westers in Bangladesh on most occasions. Maximum number of nor’westers occurs when the weighted average specific humidity between the surface (1000 hPa) and 500 hPa is 8-12 g kg-1, the maximum frequency being 43 in the range of 8-10 g kg-1. The study reveals that nor’westers have been found to occur near or at the eastern end of maximum weighted average specific humidity. It has also been found that nor’westers occur near the point of inter-section of the axes of moist and dry zones. A number of parameters of the troposphere over Dhaka at 0000 UTC on the dates of occurrence of nor’westers such as precipitable water (mm/hr), MSWI, SWI, SWI/TT, (q1000 – q850) weighted averaged specific humidity have statistically significant correlations with next 24-hour rainfall at Dhaka, next 24-hour maximum rainfall in Bangladesh and country averaged rainfall. The correlation co-efficients are relatively small and the standard errors of estimates are higher. The small correlation co-efficients are significant because of the large number of data.


MAUSAM ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 57-66
Author(s):  
D. A. MOOLEY

Based on the data for the period 1939-1954, the mean values of rainfall and number of rainy days during the, monsoon season at the various raingauge stations as well as the extreme values of these have been given; spatial distribution of heavy, rainfall over the State and the incidence of heavy rainfall at the various location have been studied. From a study of the synoptic charts on days prior to the days on which local heavy rainfall over was reported, an attempt has been made to indicate the topical synoptic situations which usually lead to local heavy rainfall over Delhi State during the next 24hours.Typical situation ‘have been illustrated by charts.  


MAUSAM ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 67-74
Author(s):  
SAMARENDRA KARMAKAR ◽  
MD. MAHBUB ALAM

Attempts have been made to study the zonal and meridional fluxes of moisture of the troposphere prior to the occurrence of nor’westers in Bangladesh during the pre-monsoon season. The study reveals that the westerly fluxes (positive) of moisture (WFM) dominate in the troposphere over Dhaka at 0000 UTC from 925 to 200 hPa level having maximum frequency of WFM from 61.68 to 96.26% in the layer from 925 to about 300 hPa level. The maximum WFM over Dhaka at 0000 UTC on the dates of occurrence of nor’westers may be more than 200 gm kg-1 × ms-1 in the lower troposphere and the maximum easterly (negative) fluxes of moisture (EFM) over Dhaka at 0000 UTC may be -128.3 gm kg-1 × ms-1 at 1000 hPa. In the upper troposphere the zonal fluxes of moisture (ZFM) become nil in most of the cases. The ZFM over Dhaka at 0000 UTC are mainly westerly and more westerly in the lower and middle troposphere on the dates of occurrence of nor’westers as compared to the fluxes on the dates of non-occurrence. The southerly fluxes (positive) of moisture (SFM) dominate in the troposphere over Dhaka at 0000 UTC from 1000 to 300 hPa level. The meridional fluxes of moisture (MFM) are mainly southerly and more southerly in the lower and middle troposphere on the dates of occurrence of nor’westers as compared to the dates of non-occurrence. In the upper troposphere the MFM become nil in most of the cases.The vertically integrated ZFM and MFM from 1000 to 100 hPa over Dhaka at 0000 UTC on the dates of occurrence of nor’westers in Bangladesh have been computed, compared and inference has been drawn. The present study also deals with the spatial distribution of the vertically integrated ZFM and MFM from 925 to 400 hPa level over Bangladesh and its surrounding areas. The range of the vertically integrated ZFM and MFM for the layer is about (2-12) × 105 and (3-14) × 105 kg × ms-1 respectively over Bangladesh in most of the cases.


MAUSAM ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 17-32
Author(s):  
M. MOHAPATRA

ABSTRACT. The low/depression over northwest (NW) Bay of Bengal is the largest contributor to seasonal monsoon rainfall over all stations in Orissa and Orissa as a whole. The Low Pressure Systems (LPS) and cyclonic circulation (cycir) extending upto 500 hPa level over NW Bay of Bengal alone contribute about 22% to the seasonal monsoon rainfall through about 12 days. The monsoon trough without any significant embedded systems over Orissa and adjoining regions contributes about 28% to seasonal rainfall through about 55 days. All types of LPS including low, depression and cyclonic storm yield maximum rainfall in their left forward (southwest) sectors. The maximum rainfall belt lies more southward due to a depression compared to that due to a low. The spatial distribution of rainfall due to cycir is less systematic. The interaction due to Eastern Ghat plays a significant role in spatial distribution of rainfall over western and eastern sides of the Eastern Ghat due to monsoon lows and depressions over Orissa and adjoining Bay and land regions. The orographic interaction due to Eastern Ghat with the cycirs over Orissa and adjoining Bay and land regions is significantly less leading to no significant difference in spatial distribution of rainfall over eastern and western sides of the Eastern Ghat.


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