TGF-β signaling and the interaction between platelets and T-cells in tumor microenvironment: Foes or friends?

Cytokine ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 150 ◽  
pp. 155772
Azadeh Sadat Razavi ◽  
Maryam Mohtashami ◽  
Sepideh Razi ◽  
Nima Rezaei
2021 ◽  
Vol 506 ◽  
pp. 55-66
Hongcheng Cheng ◽  
Kaili Ma ◽  
Lianjun Zhang ◽  
Guideng Li

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (8) ◽  
pp. 1850
Justine Cinier ◽  
Margaux Hubert ◽  
Laurie Besson ◽  
Anthony Di Roio ◽  
Céline Rodriguez ◽  

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are present in a large majority of solid tumors and are mainly associated with a poor prognosis, as their major function is to inhibit the antitumor immune response contributing to immunosuppression. In this review, we will investigate the mechanisms involved in the recruitment, amplification and stability of Tregs in the tumor microenvironment (TME). We will also review the strategies currently developed to inhibit Tregs’ deleterious impact in the TME by either inhibiting their recruitment, blocking their expansion, favoring their plastic transformation into other CD4+ T-cell subsets, blocking their suppressive function or depleting them specifically in the TME to avoid severe deleterious effects associated with Treg neutralization/depletion in the periphery and normal tissues.

Rosanna L. Wustrack ◽  
Evans Shao ◽  
Joey Sheridan ◽  
Melissa Zimel ◽  
Soo-Jin Cho ◽  

Abstract Background Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) are a rare group of mesenchymal malignancies that account for approximately 1% of adult human cancer. Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) is one of the most common subtypes of adult STS. Clinical stratification of UPS patients has not evolved for decades and continues to rely on tumor-centric metrics including tumor size and depth. Our understanding of how the tumor microenvironment correlates to these clinicopathologic parameters remains limited. Methods Here, we performed single-cell flow cytometric immune-based profiling of 15 freshly resected UPS tumors and integrated this analysis with clinical, histopathologic, and outcomes data using both a prospective and retrospective cohort of UPS patients. Results We uncovered a correlation between physiologic and anatomic properties of UPS tumors and the composition of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. Specifically, we identified an inverse correlation between tumor-infiltrating CD8 + T cells and UPS tumor size; and a positive correlation between tumor-infiltrating CD8 + T cells and overall survival. Moreover, we demonstrate an association between anatomical location (deep or superficial) and frequency of CD4 + PD1hi infiltrating T cells in UPS tumors. Conclusions Our study provides an immune-based analysis of the tumor microenvironment in UPS patients and describes the different composition of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes based on size and tumor depth.

2020 ◽  
Vol 8 (Suppl 3) ◽  
pp. A372-A373
Ira Winer ◽  
Lucy Gilbert ◽  
Ulka Vaishampayan ◽  
Seth Rosen ◽  
Christopher Hoimes ◽  

BackgroundALKS 4230 is a novel engineered cytokine that selectively targets the intermediate-affinity interleukin-2 receptor complex to activate CD8+ T cells and natural killer cells.1 The ARTISTRY-1 trial (NCT02799095) has shown encouraging efficacy and acceptable tolerability of ALKS 4230 among patients with advanced solid tumors.2 We report a detailed analysis of ovarian cancer (OC) patients who received combination therapy in ARTISTRY-1.MethodsARTISTRY-1 is an ongoing multicohort phase 1/2 trial exploring intravenous ALKS 4230 as monotherapy and combined with pembrolizumab. OC patients were enrolled into a cohort with mixed anti PD 1/L1 unapproved tumor types who had progressed on prior chemotherapy. OC patients received ALKS 4230 (3 µg/kg) on days 1–5 and pembrolizumab (200 mg) on day 1 of a 21 day cycle. Outcomes presented include antitumor activity (RECIST v1.1) and safety as of 7/24/2020. To evaluate changes in tumor microenvironment (TME), baseline and on-treatment biopsies were collected.ResultsFourteen heavily pretreated patients with OC were enrolled. Patients received a median of 5 (range, 2 11) prior regimens and all were previously treated with platinum based therapy. Among 13 evaluable patients with ≥1 assessment, 9 experienced disease control and 4 experienced disease progression; median treatment duration was approximately 7 weeks. Three patients experienced an objective response, including 1 complete response, 1 partial response (PR), and 1 unconfirmed PR; all were platinum resistant and negative for BRCA mutations. Five patients experienced tumor burden reductions (table 1). Treatment-related adverse events at the doses tested have generally been transient and manageable, with the majority being grade 1 and 2 in severity. Overall, based on preliminary data, the combination with ALKS 4230 did not demonstrate any additive toxicity to that already established with pembrolizumab alone. Additional safety and efficacy data are being collected in ongoing cohorts. In the monotherapy dose escalation portion of the study, ALKS 4230 alone increased markers of lymphocyte infiltration in 1 paired melanoma biopsy (1 of 1; on treatment at cycle 2); CD8+ T cell density and PD-L1 tumor proportion score increased 5.2- and 11 fold, respectively, supporting evidence that ALKS 4230 has immunostimulatory impact on the TME and providing rationale for combining ALKS 4230 with pembrolizumab (figure 1).Abstract 347 Table 1Summary of response observations among patients with ovarian cancerAbstract 347 Figure 1Increased markers of lymphocyte tumor infiltrationAn increase in CD3+CD8+ T cells (A, red = CD3; blue = CD8; purple = CD3+CD8+; teal = tumor marker), GranzymeB (B, red = CD8; green = granzymeB; yellow = granzymeB+CD8+; teal = tumor marker), and PD-L1 (C, red = PD-L1; blue = tumor marker) in the tumor microenvironment of a single patient was observed after the patient received monotherapy ALKS 4230ConclusionsThe combination of ALKS 4230, an investigational agent, and pembrolizumab demonstrates an acceptable safety profile and provides some evidence of tumor shrinkage and disease stabilization in some patients with heavily pretreated OC. This regimen could represent a new therapeutic option for these patients.AcknowledgementsThe authors would like to thank all of the patients who are participating in this trial and their families. The trial is sponsored by Alkermes, Inc. Medical writing and editorial support was provided by Parexel and funded by Alkermes, Inc.Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials. gov NCT02799095Ethics ApprovalThis trial was approved by Ethics and Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) at all trial sites; IRB reference numbers 16–229 (Dana-Farber Cancer Institute), MOD00003422/PH285316 (Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center), 20160175 (Western IRB), i15-01394_MOD23 (New York University School of Medicine), TRIAL20190090 (Cleveland Clinic), and 0000097 (ADVARRA).ReferencesLopes JE, Fisher JL, Flick HL, Wang C, Sun L, Ernstoff MS, et al. ALKS 4230: a novel engineered IL-2 fusion protein with an improved cellular selectivity profile for cancer immunotherapy. J Immunother Cancer 2020;8:e000673. doi: 10.1136/jitc-2020-000673.Vaishampayan UN, Muzaffar J, Velcheti V, Winer I, Hoimes CJ, Rosen SD, et al. ALKS 4230 monotherapy and in combination with pembrolizumab (pembro) in patients (pts) with refractory solid tumors (ARTISTRY-1). Oral presentation at: European Society for Medical Oncology Annual Meeting; September 2020; virtual.

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