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Published By Hindawi Limited

1875-8630, 0278-0240

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Author(s):  
Valentin Navel ◽  
Jean Malecaze ◽  
Corinne Belville ◽  
Héléna Choltus ◽  
Fanny Henrioux ◽  
...  

Background. Because of the implications of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) in keratoconus (KC), we describe a differential expression of RAGE transcripts and proteins in corneal tissues and tears of KC and healthy patients. Methods. Using a case-controlled study, corneal epitheliums and tears of KC and healthy subjects were obtained during corneal collagen cross-linking and photorefractive keratectomy (PKR) and during usual consultations. Quantitative reverse transcription (RT-qPCR) and Western-Blot were performed to analyze RAGE transcripts and proteins’ expression in corneal tissues and tears. Results. One hundred and six patients were included in this study. The characteristics of the patients were as follows: 56 KC (25 corneal epithelium and 31 tears) and 50 control subjects (25 corneal epithelium and 25 tears). Transcripts of RAGE, HMGB1, and S100 family ligands were quantified by RT-qPCR, identifying a significantly higher expression of RAGE and HMGB1 in the healthy group than in the KC group ( p = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). Western Blot showed a significantly higher fl-RAGE expression in KC corneal epithelium than control ( p < 0.001 ) and lower s-RAGE expression in KC tears than control ( p = 0.04 ). Conclusions. Linked with the inflammatory process occurring in KC pathophysiology, we propose for the first time that the RAGE expression (total and truncated forms of receptor and ligands) in KC corneal tissues and tear samples provides viable biomarkers.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Author(s):  
Tengfei Zhang ◽  
Yaxuan Wang ◽  
Yiming Dong ◽  
Lei Liu ◽  
Yikai Han ◽  
...  

Prostate cancer is still a significant global health burden in the coming decade. Novel biomarkers for detection and prognosis are needed to improve the survival of distant and advanced stage prostate cancer patients. The tumor microenvironment is an important driving factor for tumor biological functions. To investigate RNA prognostic biomarkers for prostate cancer in the tumor microenvironment, we obtained relevant data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. We used the bioinformatics tools Estimation of Stromal and Immune cells in Malignant Tumor tissues using Expression data (ESTIMATE) algorithm and weighted coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) to construct tumor microenvironment stromal-immune score-based competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks. Then, the Cox regression model was performed to screen RNAs associated with prostate cancer survival. The differentially expressed gene profile in tumor stroma was significantly enriched in microenvironment functions, like immune response, cancer-related pathways, and cell adhesion-related pathways. Based on these differentially expressed genes, we constructed three ceRNA networks with 152 RNAs associated with the prostate cancer tumor microenvironment. Cox regression analysis screened 31 RNAs as the potential prognostic biomarkers for prostate cancer. The most interesting 8 prognostic biomarkers for prostate cancer included lncRNA LINC01082, miRNA hsa-miR-133a-3p, and genes TTLL12, PTGDS, GAS6, CYP27A1, PKP3, and ZG16B. In this systematic study for ceRNA networks in the tumor environment, we screened out potential biomarkers to predict prognosis for prostate cancer. Our findings might apply a valuable tool to improve prostate cancer clinical management and the new target for mechanism study and therapy.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Author(s):  
Beili Feng ◽  
Hengdong Li

Objective. Current findings on the association between MMP-9 rs3918242 and susceptibility to myocardial infarction (MI) are inconsistent, and their definite relationship is discussed in this meta-analysis. Methods. Eligible literatures reporting MMP-9 rs3918242 and susceptibility to MI were searched in PubMed, Cochrane Library, CNRI, and VIP using keywords such as “MMP-9”, “matrix metallopeptidase-9” and “myocardial infarction”, “acute myocardial infarction”, “AMI”, and “polymorphism”. Data from eligible literatures were extracted for calculating OR and corresponding 95% CI using RevMan 5.3 and STATA12.0. Results. Ten independent literatures reporting MMP-9 rs3918242 and susceptibility to MI were enrolled. Compared with subjects carrying CT&TT genotype of MMP-9 rs3918242, susceptibility to MI was lower in those carrying CC genotype ( OR = 1.49 , 95 % CI = 1.19 – 1.86 , P = 0.0004 ). Such a significance was observed in the overdominant ( OR = 1.27 , 95 % CI = 1.14 – 1.41 , P < 0.0001 ) and allele genetic models ( OR = 1.43 , 95 % CI = 1.17 – 1.74 , P = 0.0005 ) as well. This finding was also valid in the Asian population. Conclusions. Mutation on MMP-9 rs3918242 has a potential relevance with susceptibility to MI.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Author(s):  
Yongjie Zhou ◽  
Liangwen Wang ◽  
Wen Zhang ◽  
Jingqin Ma ◽  
Zihan Zhang ◽  
...  

Purpose. The long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play the important role in tumor occurrence and progression, and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the critical process for tumor migration. However, the role of EMT-related lncRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been elucidated. Methods. In this study, we selected the EMT-related lncRNAs in HCC by using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas database (TCGA). Two prognostic models of the overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) were constructed and validated through Cox regression model, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The unsupervised clustering analysis was utilized to investigate the association between EMT-lncRNAs with tumor immune microenvironment. ESTIMATE algorithm and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) were used to estimate tumor microenvironment and associated KEGG pathways. Results. Two EMT-related lncRNA prognostic models of OS and RFS were constructed. Kaplan-Meier curves showed the dismal prognosis of OS and RFS in the group with high-risk score. The ROC curves and AUC values in two prognostic models indicated the discriminative value in the training set and validation set. Patients with HCC were clustered into two subgroups according the unsupervised clustering analysis. Lnc-CCNY-1 was selected as the key lncRNA. GSVA analysis showed that lnc-CCNY-1 was negatively associated with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway and positively correlated with CELL cycle pathway. Conclusion. Two EMT-related lncRNA prognostic models of OS and RFS were constructed to discriminate patients and predict prognosis of HCC. EMT-related lncRNAs may play a role on prognosis of HCC by influencing the immune microenvironment. Lnc-CCNY-1 was selected as the key EMT-related lncRNA for further exploration.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Author(s):  
Mingjie Yao ◽  
Leijie Wang ◽  
Jianwen Wang ◽  
Yanna Liu ◽  
Shuhong Liu ◽  
...  

Background. There is lack of reliable serum biomarkers to reflect the severity of liver necroinflammation for those who suffer autoimmune liver diseases (AILDs). In this study, a previously established patient cohort was used to explore the potential of serum Golgi protein 73 (GP73) as a noninvasive marker of AILD-related liver necroinflammation. Methods. Serum GP73 concentration was measured in a retrospective cohort of 168 AILD patients, which included 74 patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and 94 with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) who had undergone liver biopsy. Spearman’s correlation and multivariate analysis were used to evaluate the relationship between serum GP73 and liver necroinflammation. A receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed to evaluate the value of GP73 for the prediction of moderate or severe liver necroinflammation. The diagnostic value of serum GP73 was also compared with that of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in patients with PBC. Histologically, immunohistochemical analysis was performed to assess hepatic GP73 expression. Results. Both the serum level and hepatic tissue expression of GP73 protein were aberrantly elevated and correlated well with the severity of necroinflammation in both AIH ( rho = 0.655 , P < 0.001 ) and PBC ( rho = 0.547 , P < 0.001 ) patients. The results here suggested that serum GP73 could be an independent biomarker to reflect the severity of liver necroinflammation. The AUROCs for GP73 to predict moderate necroinflammation (≥G2) and severe necroinflammation (≥G3) in patients with AIH were 0.828 and 0.832, respectively. Moreover, the AUROCs of serum GP73 for the identification of moderate necroinflammation (≥G2) ( AUROC = 0.820 , P < 0.001 ) and severe necroinflammation (≥G3) ( AUROC = 0.803 , P < 0.001 ) were superior to those of ALP (≥G2: AUROC = 0.607 , P = 0.028 and ≥G3: AUROC = 0.559 , P = 0.357 ) in patients with PBC. Mechanically, interlukin-6 (IL-6), the proinflammatory and prohepatic regenerating cytokine, could transcriptionally upregulate GP73 gene expression. Conclusion. Serum GP73 is a potential noninvasive biomarker to evaluate the severity of liver necroinflammation in patients with AILDs.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-23
Author(s):  
Qiaoqiao Li ◽  
Xueping Gao ◽  
Xueshan Luo ◽  
Qingrui Wu ◽  
Jintao He ◽  
...  

Cardioembolic stroke (CS) is the most common type of ischemic stroke in the clinic, leading to high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although many studies have been conducted, the molecular mechanism underlying CS has not been fully grasped. This study was aimed at exploring the molecular mechanism of CS using comprehensive bioinformatics analysis and providing new insights into the pathophysiology of CS. We downloaded the public datasets GSE58294 and GSE16561. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened via the limma package using R software. CIBERSORT was used to estimate the proportions of 22 immune cells based on the gene expression profiling of CS patients. Using weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA) to cluster the genes into different modules and detect relationships between modules and immune cell types, hub genes were identified based on the intersection of the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis and WGCNA, and their clinical significance was then verified using another independent dataset GSE16561. Totally, 319 genes were identified as DEGs and 5413 genes were clustered into nine modules using WGCNA. The blue module, with the highest correlation coefficient, was identified as the key module associated with stroke, neutrophils, and B cells naïve. Based on the PPI analysis and WGCNA, five genes (MCEMP1, CLEC4D, GPR97, TSPAN14, and FPR2) were identified as hub genes. Correlation analysis indicated that hub genes had general association with infiltration-related immune cells. ROC analysis also showed they had potential clinical significance. The results were verified using another dataset, which were consistent with our analysis. Five crucial genes determined using integrative bioinformatics analysis might play significant roles in the pathophysiological mechanism in CS and be potential targets for pharmaceutic therapies.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Author(s):  
Qiong Ma ◽  
Bo-Lin Li ◽  
Lei Yang ◽  
Miao Zhang ◽  
Xin-Xin Feng ◽  
...  

Background. Chronological age (CA) is not a perfect proxy for the true biological aging status of the body. A new biological aging measure, phenotypic age (PhenoAge), has been shown to capture morbidity and mortality risk in the general US population and diverse subpopulations. This study was aimed at evaluating the association between PhenoAge and long-term outcome of patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods. A total of 609 multivessel CAD patients who received PCI attempt and with follow-up were enrolled. The clinical outcome was all-cause mortality on follow-up. PhenoAge was calculated using an equation constructed from CA and 9 clinical biomarkers. Cox proportional hazards regression models and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed to evaluate the association between PhenoAge and mortality. Results. Overall, patients with more diseases had older PhenoAge and phenotypic age acceleration (PhenoAgeAccel). After a median follow-up of 33.5 months, those with positive PhenoAgeAccel had a significantly higher incidence of all-cause mortality ( P = 0.001 ). After adjusting for CA, Cox proportional hazards models showed that both PhenoAge and PhenoAgeAccel were significantly associated with all-cause mortality. Even after further adjusting for confounding factors, each 10-year increase in PhenoAge was also associated with a 51% increased mortality risk. ROC curves revealed that PhenoAge, with an area under the curve of 0.705, significantly outperformed CA, the individual clinical chemistry measure, and other risk factors. When reexamining the ROC curves using various combinations of variables, we found that PhenoAge provides additional predictive power to all models. Conclusions. In conclusion, PhenoAge was strongly associated with all-cause mortality even after adjusting for CA. Our findings suggest that PhenoAge measure may be complementary in predicting mortality risk for patients with multivessel CAD.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Author(s):  
Cao-Jie Chen ◽  
Hiroki Kajita ◽  
Noriko Aramaki-Hattori ◽  
Shigeki Sakai ◽  
Kazuo Kishi

Cutaneous melanoma refers to a common skin tumor that is dangerous to health with a great risk of metastasis. Previous researches reported that autophagy is associated with the progression of cutaneous melanoma. Nevertheless, the role played by genes with a relation to autophagy (ARG) in the prediction of the course of metastatic cutaneous melanoma is still largely unknown. We observed that thirteen ARGs showed relations to overall survival (OS) in the Cox regression investigation based on a single variate. We developed 2-gene signature, which stratified metastatic cutaneous melanoma cases to groups at great and small risks. Cases suffering from metastatic cutaneous melanoma in the group at great risks had power OS compared with cases at small risks. The risk score, T phase, N phase, and age were proved to be individual factors in terms of the prediction of OS. Besides, the risk scores identified by the two ARGs were significantly correlated with metastatic cutaneous melanoma. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis demonstrated accurate predicting performance exhibited by the 2-gene signature. We also found that the immunization and stromal scores achieved by the group based on large risks were higher compared with those achieved by the group based on small risks. The metastatic cutaneous melanoma cases achieving the score based on small risks acquired greater expression of immune checkpoint molecules as compared with the high-risk group. In conclusion, the 2-ARG gene signature indicated a novel prognostic indicator for prognosis prediction of metastatic cutaneous melanoma, which served as an important tool for guiding the clinical treatment of cutaneous melanoma.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Author(s):  
Dinggui Lu ◽  
Jihua Wei ◽  
Jian Chen ◽  
Jingjie Zhao ◽  
Jiajia Wang ◽  
...  

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease characterized by articular cartilage and/or chondrocyte destruction, and although it has long been considered as a primary disease, the importance of meniscus endothelial cell modulation in the subchondral microenvironment has recently drawn attention. Previous studies have shown that apelin could potentially inhibit cellular apoptosis; however, it remains unclear whether apelin could play a protective role in protecting the endothelium in the OA meniscus. In this study, with the advantages of single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data, in combination with flow cytometry, we identified two endothelial subclusters in the meniscus, featured by high expression of Homeobox A13 (HOXA13) and Ras Protein-Specific Guanine Nucleotide Releasing Factor 2 (RASGRF2), respectively. Compared with control patients, both subclusters decreased in absolute cell numbers and exhibited downregulated APJ endogenous ligand (APLN, coding for apelin) and upregulated apelin receptor (APLNR, coding apelin receptor). Furthermore, we confirmed that in OA, decreased endothelial cell numbers, including both subclusters, were related to intrinsic apoptosis factors: one more relevant to caspase 3 (CASP3) and the other to BH3-Interacting Domain Death agonist (BID). In vitro culturing of meniscal endothelial cells purified from patients proved that apelin could significantly inhibit apoptosis by downregulating these two factors in endothelial cell subclusters, suggesting that apelin could potentially serve as a therapeutic target for patients with OA.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Author(s):  
Xuemei Wang ◽  
Yanlin Zhong ◽  
Minghui Liang ◽  
Zhirong Lin ◽  
Huping Wu ◽  
...  

Purpose. To investigate the changes of corneal endothelium under different crosslinking conditions and the protective effect of ripasudil. Methods. Corneal crosslinking groups were infiltrated with riboflavin and subsequently irradiated with 0.54 J/cm2 or 1.08 J/cm2 UVA, while noncrosslinking groups included neither UVA nor riboflavin treatment, only 1.08 J/cm2 UVA and only riboflavin treatment. Corneal opacity, variations in corneal endothelial cells, and corneal thickness of all groups were observed by slit lamp, in vivo confocal microscopy, and optical coherence tomography. Immunofluorescence staining and scanning electron microscopy were performed to evaluate changes in the structure and function of the corneal endothelium. The mice that received a corneal crosslinking dose of 1.08 J/cm2 were instilled with ripasudil to explore its protective effect on the corneal endothelium. Results. Treatment with UVA and riboflavin caused an increase in corneal opacity and corneal thickness and decreased endothelial cell density. Furthermore, treatment with UVA and riboflavin caused endothelial cell DNA damage and destroyed the tight junction and pump function of the endothelium, while riboflavin or the same dose of UVA alone did not affect the endothelium. Ripasudil reduced DNA damage in endothelial cells, increased the density of cells, and protected the endothelium’s integrity and function. Conclusion. Riboflavin combined with UVA can damage the corneal endothelium’s normal functioning. The corneal endothelium’s wound healing is dose-dependent, and the ROCK inhibitor ripasudil maintains the endothelium’s pump and barrier functions.


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