Controlled Drug Release
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Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (17) ◽  
pp. 2897
Author(s):  
Carmelo Corsaro ◽  
Giulia Neri ◽  
Angela Maria Mezzasalma ◽  
Enza Fazio

Traditional pharmacotherapy suffers from multiple drawbacks that hamper patient treatment such as antibiotic resistances or low drug selectivity and toxicity during systemic applications. Some functional hybrid nanomaterials are designed to handle the drug release process under remote-control. More attention has recently been paid to synthetic polyelectrolytes for their intrinsic properties which allow them to rearrange into compact structures, ideal to be used as drug carriers or probes influencing biochemical processes. The presence of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in the Poly methyl acrylate (PMA) matrix leads to an enhancement of drug release efficiency, even using a low-power laser whose wavelength is far from the Ag Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) peak. Further, compared to the colloids, the nanofiber-based drug delivery system has shown shorter response time and more precise control over the release rate. The efficiency and timing of involved drug release mechanisms has been estimated by the Weibull distribution function, whose parameters indicate that the release mechanism of nanofibers obeys Fick’s first law while a non-Fickian character controlled by diffusion and relaxation of polymer chains occurs in the colloidal phase.


Author(s):  
Sharadwata Pan ◽  
Thomas B. Goudoulas ◽  
Jaison Jeevanandam ◽  
Kei Xian Tan ◽  
Shamik Chowdhury ◽  
...  

Invention of novel nanomaterials guaranteeing enhanced biomedical performance in diagnostics and therapeutics, is a perpetual initiative. In this regard, the upsurge and widespread usage of nanoparticles is a ubiquitous phenomenon, focusing predominantly on the application of submicroscopic (< 100 nm) particles. While this is facilitated attributing to their wide range of benefits, a major challenge is to create and maintain a balance, by alleviating the associated toxicity levels. In this minireview, we collate and discuss particularly recent advancements in therapeutic applications of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles in skin and cosmetic applications. On the one hand, we outline the dermatological intrusions, including applications in wound healing. On the other hand, we keep track of the recent trends in the development of cosmeceuticals via nanoparticle engrossments. The dermato-cosmetic applications of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles encompass diverse aspects, including targeted, controlled drug release, and conferring ultraviolet and antimicrobial protections to the skin. Additionally, we deliberate on the critical aspects in comprehending the advantage of rheological assessments, while characterizing the nanoparticulate systems. As an illustration, we single out psoriasis, to capture and comment on the nanodermatology-based curative standpoints. Finally, we lay a broad outlook and examine the imminent prospects.


Pharmaceutics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (8) ◽  
pp. 1221
Author(s):  
Zihua Zeng ◽  
Jianjun Qi ◽  
Quanyuan Wan ◽  
Youli Zu

Doxorubicin (DOX) is a common anti-tumor drug that binds to DNA or RNA via non-covalent intercalation between G-C sequences. As a therapeutic agent, DOX has been used to form aptamer–drug conjugates for targeted cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo. To improve the therapeutic potential of aptamer–DOX conjugates, we synthesized trifurcated Newkome-type monomer (TNM) structures with three DOX molecules bound through pH-sensitive hydrazone bonds to formulate TNM-DOX. The aptamer–TNM–DOX conjugate (Apt–TNM-DOX) was produced through a simple self-loading process. Chemical validation revealed that Apt–TNM-DOX stably carried high drug payloads of 15 DOX molecules per aptamer sequence. Functional characterization showed that DOX payload release from Apt–TNM-DOX was pH-dependent and occurred at pH 5.0, which reflects the microenvironment of tumor cell lysosomes. Further, Apt–TNM-DOX specifically targeted lymphoma cells without affecting off-target control cells. Aptamer-mediated cell binding resulted in the uptake of Apt–TNM-DOX into targeted cells and the release of DOX payload within cell lysosomes to inhibit growth of targeted lymphoma cells. The Apt–TNM-DOX provides a simple, non-toxic approach to develop aptamer-based targeted therapeutics and may reduce the non-specific side effects associated with traditional chemotherapy.


2021 ◽  
Vol 28 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ying Zhang ◽  
J. Brian Fowlkes

: Ultrasound (US) is notable in the medical field as a safe and effective imaging modality due to its lack of ionizing radiation, non-invasive approach, and real-time monitoring capability. Accompanying recent progress in nanomedicine, US has been providing hope of theranostic capability not only for imaging-based diagnosis but also for US-based therapy by taking advantage of the bioeffects induced by US. Cavitation, sonoporation, thermal effects, and other cascade effects stimulated by acoustic energy conversion have contributed to medical problem-solving in the past decades although to varying degrees of efficacy in comparisons to other methods. Recently, the usage of liposomes-based nanoplatform fuels the development of nanomedicine and provides novel clinical strategies for antitumor, thrombolysis, and controlled drug release. Merging of novel liposome-based nanoplatforms and US-induced reactions has promise for a new blueprint for future medicine. In the present review article, the value of liposome-based nanoplatforms in US-related diagnosis and therapy will be discussed and summarized along with potential future directions for further investigations.


2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (8) ◽  
Author(s):  
E. Arroyo ◽  
R. Valdez ◽  
J. M. Cornejo-Bravo ◽  
M. A. Armenta ◽  
A. Olivas

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shilpa Raval ◽  
Parva Jani ◽  
Pravin Patil ◽  
Parth Thakkar ◽  
Krutika Sawant

Aim: The work describes enhanced bioavailability of paliperidone palmitate through transdermal delivery using nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). Materials & methods: NLCs were formulated by nanoprecipitation method followed by incorporation in transdermal patch and physicochemical characterization. Results: NLCs showed high percentage entrapment efficiency of 83.44 ± 0.8%, drug loading of 24.75 ± 1.10% (w/w), particle size of 173.8 ± 3.25 nm, polydispersity index of 0.143 ± 0.05 and zeta potential of -15.9 ± 0.75 mV. In vitro and ex vivo studies indicated zero-order controlled drug release from NLCs and transdermal patch up to 48 h. Pharmacokinetic studies indicated 1.76-fold enhanced bioavailability by transdermal route as compared with oral drug delivery. Conclusion: From the results, it was concluded that drug-loaded NLCs-transdermal patch is promising drug delivery system for poorly bioavailable drugs.


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