Reference Evapotranspiration
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Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 484
Daniel Liberacki ◽  
Joanna Kocięcka ◽  
Piotr Stachowski ◽  
Roman Rolbiecki ◽  
Stanisław Rolbiecki ◽  

Willows are one of the plants which can be used to produce biomass for energy purposes. Biomass production is classified as a renewable energy source. Increasing the share of renewable sources is one of the priority actions for European Union countries due to the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To achieve the best possible growth of the willow and increase its biomass for fuel, it is crucial to provide optimal water conditions for its growth. The aim of the study was to determine the water requirements of willows under the conditions of the western Polish climate and to verify whether this area is potentially favourable for willow cultivation. The novelty of this paper lies in its multi-year climatic analysis in the context of willow water needs for the area of three voivodships: Lubusz, Lower Silesian, and West Pomeranian. This is one of the few willow water-needs analyses for this region which considers the potential for widespread willow cultivation and biomass production in western Poland. Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) was determined by the Blaney-Criddle equation and then, using plant coefficients, water needs for willow were determined. Calculations were carried out for the growing season lasting from 21 May to 31 October. The estimated water needs during the vegetation season amounted on average to 408 mm for the West Pomeranian Voivodeship, 405 mm for the Lubusz Voivodeship, and 402 mm for the Lower Silesian Voivodeship. The conducted analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that these needs do not differ significantly between the voivodeships. Therefore, it can be concluded that the water requirements of willows in western Poland do not differ significantly, and the whole region shows similar water conditions for willow cultivation. Furthermore, it was found that water needs are increasing from decade to decade, making rational water management necessary. This is particularly important in countries with limited water resources, such as Poland. Correctly determining the water requirements of willow and applying them to the cultivation of this plant should increase the biomass obtained. With appropriate management, willow cultivation in Poland can provide an alternative energy source to coal.

2022 ◽  
Neilon Silva ◽  
Aureo Silva de Oliveira

Abstract An important requisite in any water resources management program is the knowledge of the natural processes that regulate the hydrological cycle, especially for spatial and temporal analyses of these processes. This work aimed to explore spatial and temporal trends of reference evapotranspiration (ETo), evaluate ETo variation dynamics and quantify the contribution of each one of the meteorological variables in ETo calculation in the São Francisco River basin. Daily data of maximum and minimum air temperature, mean relative air humidity, wind speed and net radiation from 101 weather stations, for the period from 1961 to 2015, were used and are part of the network of the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET). Climate trend analysis was performed using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall statistical test and the sensitivity analysis for the Penman-Monteith equation was carried out based on partial derivatives as a function of the key meteorological variables of ETo (air temperature, net radiation, wind speed and actual water vapor pressure). A significant increase (p<0.01) in vapor pressure deficit (VPD) associated with the increase in mean air temperature contributed to increments in ETo along the studied period. The scenario in the entire São Francisco River basin is of increase in the values of the climatic variables, particularly evapotranspiration (85% of basin area with increments) and rainfall (52% of basin area with decrements). Results indicate an increase in ETo variation rates of approximately 2.424 mm year-2, on average, in the entire basin. The energy term represents higher weight in ETo calculation in 81% of the basin territory.

2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  

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