Along with the extensive use of classical energy keys in modern society, efforts are being made to integrate so-called non-traditional (or alternative) energy sources into the economic circulation. The article examines the types of alternative energy sources, their advantages and disadvantages in relation to the climatic and geographical circumstances of the territory. Annotation. Along with the extensive use of classical energy sources in society, efforts are being made to integrate so-called non-traditional (or alternative) energy sources into economic circulation. This article discusses the types of alternative energy sources, their benefits.
AbstractThe world is still heavily using nonconventional energy sources, which are worryingly based on carbon. The step is now alternative energy sources hoping that they will be more environmentally friendly. One of the important energy conversion forms by using these sources is photovoltaic solar systems. These type of power plants is on the increase in everyday on the world. Before investment a solar power plant in a specified region, a techno-economic analyse is performed for that power plant by using several meteorological data like solar irradiance and ambient temperature. However, this analyses generally lacks evaluation on effects of climatic and geographical conditions. In this work, 5 years of data of 27 grid-connected photovoltaic power plants are investigated, which are installed on seven different climate types in Turkey. Firstly, the power plants are categorized considering the tilt angles and Köppen–Gieger climate classification. The performance evaluations of the plants are mainly conducted using monthly average efficiencies and specific yields. The monthly average efficiencies, which were classified using the tilts and climate types were from 12 to 17%, from 12 to 16% and from 13 to 15% for tilts 30°/10°, 25° and 20°, respectively. The variation in the specific yields decrease with elevation as y(x) = − 0.068x + 1707.29 (kWh/kWp). As the performances of photovoltaic systems for some locations within the Csb climatic regions may relatively lower than some other regions with same climate type. Thus, techno-economic performance for PVPP located in this climate classification should be carefully treated.
Due to fossil fuel depletion and the rapid growth of industry, it is critical to develop environmentally friendly and long-term alternative energy technologies. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a powerful platform for extracting energy from various sources and converting it to electricity. As no intermediate steps are required to harness the electricity from the organic substrate’s stored chemical energy, MFC technology offers a sustainable alternative source of energy production. The generation of electricity from the organic substances contained in waste using MFC technology could provide a cost-effective solution to the issue of environmental pollution and energy shortages in the near future. Thus, technical advancements in bioelectricity production from wastewater are becoming commercially viable. Due to practical limitations, and although promising prospects have been reported in recent investigations, MFCs are incapable of upscaling and of high-energy production. In this review paper, intensive research has been conducted on MFCs’ applications in the treatment of wastewater. Several types of waste have been extensively studied, including municipal or domestic waste, industrial waste, brewery wastewater, and urine waste. Furthermore, the applications of MFCs in the removal of nutrients (nitrogen and sulphates) and precious metals from wastewater were also intensively reviewed. As a result, the efficacy of various MFCs in achieving sustainable power generation from wastewater has been critically addressed in this study.
Biomass energy accounts for more than 92 percent of overall energy consumption in Ethiopia. As a result, Ethiopia is one of the world’s most biomass-dependent countries. The high reliance on wood fuels and agricultural residues for fuel harms society’s social, economic, and environmental well-being. This study aims to create and test the quality of fuel briquettes made from the coffee husk. Also built and produced are a carboniser/charcoal kiln, a manually operated molder system, and a briquette stove for burning the manufactured briquette. The carboniser converts 15 kg of raw coffee husk into 6 kg of carbonised char in 25 minutes, and the manually operated briquette molder can press 30 kg per hour. The efficiency of converting raw coffee husk into carbonised char content was 40.12%. In the geological survey of Ethiopia, the geochemical laboratory directorate received triplicate samples of the fuel briquette charcoal for analysis. Moisture content, fixed carbon content, ash content, sulfur content, and calorific value were determined using a bomb calorimeter and a ceramic lining furnace. Physical properties of fuel briquettes ranged from 10.03% moisture content, 970 kg/m3 density, 81% fixed carbon, 5.15% ash content, 0% sulfur, and 30.54 Kcal/kg higher heating value, according to laboratory results. The results of the study revealed that the coffee husk fuel briquettes produced have more positive characteristics. Fuel briquettes were cost-effective and environmentally friendly and reduced deforestation compared to firewood. This study clearly shows that briquettes made from coffee husk could be used as an alternative energy source when this kind of waste is well managed.
Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a natural biochemical process that converts organic materials into combustible biogas. AD has been long practiced for agricultural and urban waste management; however, this process is getting more attention as an alternative energy source nowadays. Additionally, various biogas-derived value-added chemicals and transportation fuels are turning AD into a profitable biorefinery business model. Despite its numerous potentials, AD technologies still face challenges in conversion efficiency, process stability, product quality, and economic feasibility. Researchers have been devising various mechanisms to tackle these challenges. However, a widespread adoption of commercial-scale AD is yet to be visible. The development of AD technology requires a concerted effort of scientists from different backgrounds to ensure rapid expansion.
The importance of this research stems from the need to ensure the sustainability of cross-border cooperation through a better understanding of its determinants and causal relationships. While having common features and patterns, cross-border cooperation is always expressed through the relations of specific countries and peoples. Therefore, based upon the PLS-SEM methodology, the authors consider the fundamental factors influencing the external cooperation of Hungary’s transboundary regions. The advantage of the PLS-SEM method is that it enables researchers to simultaneously identify and approximate hidden connections between input data and to construct a regression model describing the relationship between input data. Despite widespread application in economic studies, the authors have not found the use of PLS-SEM for studying cross-border cooperation issues in the current scientific literature. The authors have built a model to assess the hidden factors of cross-border cooperation and to identify the indirect influence of certain factors. The novelty of the research is to identify the determinants of sustainable cross-border cooperation and the relationship between them in a multi-level system of cross-border interaction between businesses, people, and the State. In the Hungarian context, transport infrastructure and business travel are shown to have a direct positive impact on cross-border cooperation. For the first time, tourism and socio-economic conditions have been shown to have powerful but indirect impacts. This work could be the beginning of gathering new evidence on the determinants and causation of cross-border cooperation in the context of other countries. An important finding of the study is the growing importance of indicators of the new, post-industrial economy. As for recommendations, the authors focus on state, regional, and municipal support measures, awareness of the possibilities of cross-border cooperation, the need to develop e-commerce, and alternative energy as a modern basis for converting Hungary’s cross-border position into a competitive advantage.
To support health, efficiency and active longevity, a person needs to provide the body with the micronutrients necessary for metabolic processes. They must consume food in quantities that correspond to the physiological needs of the individual. Analyses of consumer demand have found that the human diet throughout life often includes dairy products.However, whole milk is often poorly tolerated by both the elderly and people with lactose intolerance (hypolactasia).This article examined the selection of alternative energy sources, focusing on the example of a drink that uses plant raw materials.Thus, the recipe of a new fermented drink based on nut raw materials was developed. The optimization of the hydromodule for the drink preparation from peanuts and hazelnuts, according to the content of the main food components and organoleptic quality indicators, was carried out. The chemical composition of the developed drink was established, a portion of which met 20% of the daily recommended value of vitamin B1, 16.8% of the daily value of niacin, and 15% and 19% of the daily value of iron and magnesium, respectively. The possibility of producing a fermented drink with nut raw materials as a complete replacement of cow’s milk was therefore shown to be justified.
Keywords: specialized food, probiotic, vegetable raw materials, fermented drink, nuts
Willows are one of the plants which can be used to produce biomass for energy purposes. Biomass production is classified as a renewable energy source. Increasing the share of renewable sources is one of the priority actions for European Union countries due to the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To achieve the best possible growth of the willow and increase its biomass for fuel, it is crucial to provide optimal water conditions for its growth. The aim of the study was to determine the water requirements of willows under the conditions of the western Polish climate and to verify whether this area is potentially favourable for willow cultivation. The novelty of this paper lies in its multi-year climatic analysis in the context of willow water needs for the area of three voivodships: Lubusz, Lower Silesian, and West Pomeranian. This is one of the few willow water-needs analyses for this region which considers the potential for widespread willow cultivation and biomass production in western Poland. Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) was determined by the Blaney-Criddle equation and then, using plant coefficients, water needs for willow were determined. Calculations were carried out for the growing season lasting from 21 May to 31 October. The estimated water needs during the vegetation season amounted on average to 408 mm for the West Pomeranian Voivodeship, 405 mm for the Lubusz Voivodeship, and 402 mm for the Lower Silesian Voivodeship. The conducted analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that these needs do not differ significantly between the voivodeships. Therefore, it can be concluded that the water requirements of willows in western Poland do not differ significantly, and the whole region shows similar water conditions for willow cultivation. Furthermore, it was found that water needs are increasing from decade to decade, making rational water management necessary. This is particularly important in countries with limited water resources, such as Poland. Correctly determining the water requirements of willow and applying them to the cultivation of this plant should increase the biomass obtained. With appropriate management, willow cultivation in Poland can provide an alternative energy source to coal.
Inclination to exploit renewable energy and their potential storage by facile, cost-effective, and above all in a green way are exactly what the current alternative energy research is looking for. The high-performance supercapacitor devices made up with the electrode materials synthesized in a simple and ecofriendly way are in utmost demand and the ultimate goal for widespread commercialization. Keeping these points in view, one pot green synthesis of active electrode material rGO-Au composite is achieved which not only performs as a very good supercapacitor in three-electrode configuration but also demonstrates extremely well as a coin cell device, ready to use. Ascorbic acid, which is commonly found in citrus fruits, plays an important role to reduce graphene oxide into rGO and simultaneously gold salt into gold nanoparticles, resulting in rGO-Au composite. The maximum recorded specific capacitance by CV measurement is 303.02 Fg−1 at a scan rate of 5 mVs−1. Hindrance in the commercialization is caused by the differences in the supercapacitor performances between three electrode configurations and finally the proposed device. Here the proposed coin cell device exhibits maximum areal and mass specific capacitance of 62.43 mFcm−2 and 56.09 Fg−1, respectively, that is very high among all reported graphene based composite devices benefitted over with commercially viable high capacity retention up to 80% even after 10,000 cycles. The proposed device demonstrates high energy density (∼ ED = 7.79 Wh/Kg) comparable to batteries and an optimum power density (∼ PD = 2512.9 W/Kg) close to supercapacitor insinuating it is an effective green supercapacitor for commercialization.
The article discusses contemporary issues of ensuring energy security in Ukraine. A brief overview on the modern energy system which comprises power plants of different types, electrical and thermal networks operating in the manufacturing sector, in transmission and distribution of electrical and thermal energy. The study considers the following types of power plants in the energy system of Ukraine: nuclear, thermal, hydroelectric and hydropower stations as well as power plants working with alternative (renewable) energy sources. It is argued that the ratio of energy sources and the energy system balance is the core basis to provide the national energy security and maintain stable power supply subject to different external environment factors. The findings have revealed the dominance of coal and natural gas production in the overall energy balance of Ukraine. However, the study of import and export trends demonstrates the prevalence of energy imports, in particular coal, oil and gas. It is observed that currently, alternative energy sources are at the infant development stage. The study of alternative energy supply in Ukraine shows that over 2018–2020 the capacity of such power plants increased by 7%, in particular, the capacity of wind stations grew by 2.3 times and solar – by 4.3 times, thus exhibiting respective change in energy output. It is also observed that during the period under consideration, the renewable energy output dropped by 17.1% while wind power production increased by 2.8 times and solar – by 5.2 times, respectively. According to the results, over 2018–2020 the capacity of wind power plants increased from 0.9% to 2.0% of the total domestic output, and solar – from 2.3% to 9.4%; as to production, the share of energy generated by wind power increased from 0.8% to 2.4%, and solar – from 0.7% to 4.1%. Given the current trend of increasing energy output generated from alternative sources, there is reason to tap a growing interest in the activities of companies offering power generating equipment in the Ukrainian market. A study on the capacity needs has revealed that the most popular among consumers of autonomous power supply systems, about 70% of total sales refer to low and medium power generators in the range of 8–550 kW. The conclusions resume that the key driver in boosting the alternative energy supply system is the relevant legal framework that encourages further alternative energy supply market development and, accordingly, the market of power generating equipment in Ukraine characterized by a strong upward growth trend.