Four microalgae species were evaluated for their bioremediation capacity of anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) rich in ammonium nitrogen, derived from a biogas plant. Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella sorokiniana, Desmodesmus communis and Stichococcus sp. were examined for their nutrient assimilation efficiency, biomass production and composition through their cultivation in 3.7% v/v ADE; their performance was compared with standard cultivation media which consisted in different nitrogen sources, i.e., BG-11NO3 and BG-11ΝΗ4 where N-NO3 was replaced by N-NH4. The results justified ammonium as the most preferable source of nitrogen for microalgae growth. Although Stichococcus sp. outperformed the other 3 species in N-NH4 removal efficiency both in BG-11NH4 and in 3.7% ADE (reaching up to 90.79% and 69.69% respectively), it exhibited a moderate biomass production when it was cultivated in diluted ADE corresponding to 0.59 g/L, compared to 0.89 g/L recorded by C. vulgaris and 0.7 g/L by C. sorokiniana and D. communis. Phosphorus contained in the effluent and in the control media was successfully consumed by all of the species, although its removal rate was found to be affected by the type of nitrogen source used and the particular microalgae species. The use of ADE as cultivation medium resulted in a significant increase in carbohydrates content in all investigated species.
AbstractEcological theory predicts that the relative distribution of primary production across habitats influence fish size structure and biomass production. In this study, we assessed individual, population, and community-level consequences for brown trout (Salmo trutta) and Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) of variation in estimated habitat specific (benthic and pelagic) and total whole lake (GPPwhole) gross primary production in 27 northern oligotrophic lakes. We found that higher contribution of benthic primary production to GPPwhole was associated with higher community biomass and larger maximum and mean sizes of fish. At the population level, species-specific responses differed. Increased benthic primary production (GPPBenthic) correlated to higher population biomass of brown trout regardless of being alone or in sympatry, while Arctic char responded positively to pelagic primary production (GPPPelagic) in sympatric populations. In sympatric lakes, the maximum size of both species was positively related to both GPPBenthic and the benthic contribution to GPPWhole. In allopatric lakes, brown trout mean and maximum size and Arctic char mean size were positively related to the benthic proportion of GPPWhole. Our results highlight the importance of light-controlled benthic primary production for fish biomass production in oligotrophic northern lakes. Our results further suggest that consequences of ontogenetic asymmetry and niche shifts may cause the distribution of primary production across habitats to be more important than the total ecosystem primary production for fish size, population biomass, and production. Awareness of the relationships between light availability and asymmetric resource production favoring large fish and fish production may allow for cost-efficient and more informed management actions in northern oligotrophic lakes.
Willows are one of the plants which can be used to produce biomass for energy purposes. Biomass production is classified as a renewable energy source. Increasing the share of renewable sources is one of the priority actions for European Union countries due to the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To achieve the best possible growth of the willow and increase its biomass for fuel, it is crucial to provide optimal water conditions for its growth. The aim of the study was to determine the water requirements of willows under the conditions of the western Polish climate and to verify whether this area is potentially favourable for willow cultivation. The novelty of this paper lies in its multi-year climatic analysis in the context of willow water needs for the area of three voivodships: Lubusz, Lower Silesian, and West Pomeranian. This is one of the few willow water-needs analyses for this region which considers the potential for widespread willow cultivation and biomass production in western Poland. Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) was determined by the Blaney-Criddle equation and then, using plant coefficients, water needs for willow were determined. Calculations were carried out for the growing season lasting from 21 May to 31 October. The estimated water needs during the vegetation season amounted on average to 408 mm for the West Pomeranian Voivodeship, 405 mm for the Lubusz Voivodeship, and 402 mm for the Lower Silesian Voivodeship. The conducted analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that these needs do not differ significantly between the voivodeships. Therefore, it can be concluded that the water requirements of willows in western Poland do not differ significantly, and the whole region shows similar water conditions for willow cultivation. Furthermore, it was found that water needs are increasing from decade to decade, making rational water management necessary. This is particularly important in countries with limited water resources, such as Poland. Correctly determining the water requirements of willow and applying them to the cultivation of this plant should increase the biomass obtained. With appropriate management, willow cultivation in Poland can provide an alternative energy source to coal.
Soils of the Andean highlands are under threat from cropping system intensification. Improved forage-based fallows offer great promise to address this issue, but research is needed to better understand the potential of species mixtures vs. monocultures to support multiple farmer objectives, especially forage production and soil conservation. We used a pot study to quantify above- and belowground biomass production as well as the total N uptake of grass–legume pairs between five grasses: (1) oat (Avena sativa), (2) ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), (3) festulolium (Lolium × Festuca genera), (4) brome grass (Bromus catharticus), and (5) orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata), and four legumes: (1) vetch (Vicia dasycarpa), (2) red clover (Trifolium pratense), (3) black medic (Medicago lupulina), and (4) alfalfa (Medicago sativa) relative to the performance of each species in monoculture within two soils from the central Peruvian Andes. Grass–legume bicultures demonstrated significant overyielding, producing 65% and 28% more total dry biomass and total N uptake on average than monocultures. Aboveground biomass of bicultures was significantly influenced by the species of legume present, while belowground biomass was more affected by the grass species in the mixture. When evaluating the growth of each species separately, our findings indicate that overyielding was driven more by the enhanced growth of grasses relative to legumes. Our findings indicate that combining key functional groups (e.g., grass and legume, annual and perennial) offers great promise for developing improved fallows for supporting soil health and productivity in Andean agroecosystems.