climate change scenarios
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2022 ◽  
Vol 204 ◽  
pp. 112012
Author(s):  
Patricia Guzmán ◽  
Patricia Tarín-Carrasco ◽  
María Morales-Suárez-Varela ◽  
Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero

2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
Author(s):  
A. Yousafzai ◽  
W. Manzoor ◽  
G. Raza ◽  
T. Mahmood ◽  
F. Rehman ◽  
...  

Abstract This study aimed to develop and evaluate data driven models for prediction of forest yield under different climate change scenarios in the Gallies forest division of district Abbottabad, Pakistan. The Random Forest (RF) and Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR) models were developed and evaluated using yield data of two species (Blue pine and Silver fir) as an objective variable and climate data (temperature, humidity, rainfall and wind speed) as predictive variables. Prediction accuracy of both the models were assessed by means of root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), correlation coefficient (r), relative root mean squared error (RRMSE), Legates-McCabe’s (LM), Willmott’s index (WI) and Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE) metrics. Overall, the RF model outperformed the KRR model due to its higher accuracy in forecasting of forest yield. The study strongly recommends that RF model should be applied in other regions of the country for prediction of forest growth and yield, which may help in the management and future planning of forest productivity in Pakistan.


HortScience ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 57 (2) ◽  
pp. 181-190
Author(s):  
Shih-wei Lin ◽  
Tsung-han Lin ◽  
Cynthia Kung Man Yee ◽  
Joyce Chen ◽  
Yen-wei Wang ◽  
...  

High temperature stress is a major limiting factor for pepper productivity, which will continue to be a problem under climate change scenarios. Developing heat tolerant cultivars is critical for sustained pepper production, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. In fruiting crops, like pepper, reproductive tissues, especially pollen, are the most sensitive to high temperature stress. Typically, pollen viability and germination are assessed through staining and microscopy, which is tedious and potentially inaccurate. To increase efficiency in assessing pollen traits of pepper, the use of impedance flow cytometry (IFC) has been proposed. We conducted three independent experiments to determine the most effective methodology to use IFC for evaluating pollen traits for heat tolerance in pepper. Seven floral developmental stages were evaluated, and stages 3, 4, and 5 were found to best combine high pollen concentration and activity. Flowers in development stages 3, 4, or 5 were then heat treated at 41, 44, 47, 50, and 55 °C or not heat treated (control). The critical temperature to assess heat tolerance using IFC was found to be 50 °C, with a reduction in pollen activity and concentration occurring at temperatures greater than 47 °C. Twenty-one entries of pepper were then accessed for pollen traits using the staining and IFC methods over 2 months, April (cooler) and June (hotter). Growing environment was found to be the greatest contributor to variability for nearly all pollen traits assessed, with performance during June nearly always being lower. PBC 507 and PBC 831 were identified as being new sources of heat tolerance, based on using IFC for assessing pollen. Pollen viability determined by staining and pollen activity determined using IFC were significantly positively correlated, indicating that IFC is an efficient and accurate method to assess pollen traits in pepper. This work provides a basis for further research in this area and supports more efficient breeding of heat-tolerant cultivars.


Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 126
Author(s):  
Lijuan Zhang ◽  
Lianqi Zhu ◽  
Yanhong Li ◽  
Wenbo Zhu ◽  
Yingyong Chen

Climate change has caused substantial shifts in the geographical distribution of many species. There is growing evidence that many species are migrating in response to climate change. Changes in the distribution of dominant tree species induced by climate change can have an impact not only on organisms such as epiphytes and understory vegetation, but also on the whole ecosystem. Cyclobalanopsis glauca is a dominant tree species in the mingled evergreen and deciduous broadleaf forests of China. Understanding their adaptive strategies against climate change is important for understanding the future community structure. We employed the Maxent framework to model current suitable habitats of C. glauca under current climate conditions and predicted it onto the climate scenarios for 2041–2060 and 2081–2100 using 315 occurrence data. Our results showed that annual precipitation was the most critical factor for the distribution of C. glauca. In the future, increasing precipitation would reduce the limitation of water on habitats, leading to an expansion of the distribution to a higher latitude and higher altitude. At the same time, there were habitat contractions at the junction of the Jiangxi and Fujian Provinces. This study can provide vital information for the management of C. glauca, and serve as a reminder for managers to protect C. glauca in the range contraction areas.


Ibis ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Luke J. Sutton ◽  
David L. Anderson ◽  
Miguel Franco ◽  
Christopher J.W. McClure ◽  
Everton B.P. Miranda ◽  
...  

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 119
Author(s):  
Diego Rodríguez de Prado ◽  
Jose Riofrío ◽  
Jorge Aldea ◽  
Felipe Bravo ◽  
James McDermott ◽  
...  

Estimating tree height is essential for modelling and managing both pure and mixed forest stands. Although height–diameter (H–D) relationships have been traditionally fitted for pure stands, attention must be paid when analyzing this relationship behavior in stands composed of more than one species. The present context of global change makes also necessary to analyze how this relationship is influenced by climate conditions. This study tends to cope these gaps, by fitting new H–D models for 13 different Mediterranean species in mixed forest stands under different mixing proportions along an aridity gradient in Spain. Using Spanish National Forest Inventory data, a total of 14 height–diameter equations were initially fitted in order to select the best base models for each pair species-mixture. Then, the best models were expanded including species proportion by area (mi) and the De Martonne Aridity Index (M). A general trend was found for coniferous species, with taller trees for the same diameter size in pure than in mixed stands, being this trend inverse for broadleaved species. Regarding aridity influence on H–D relationships, humid conditions seem to beneficiate tree height for almost all the analyzed species and species mixtures. These results may have a relevant importance for Mediterranean coppice stands, suggesting that introducing conifers in broadleaves forests could enhance height for coppice species. However, this practice only should be carried out in places with a low probability of drought. Models presented in our study can be used to predict height both in different pure and mixed forests at different spatio-temporal scales to take better sustainable management decisions under future climate change scenarios.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Christina C. Roggatz ◽  
Daniel R Parsons

Marine biofilms are functional communities that shape habitats by providing a range of structural and functional services integral to coastal ecosystems. Impacts of climate change on biological aspects of such communities are increasingly studied, but impacts on the chemicals that mediate key interactions of biofilm organisms have largely been overlooked. Acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), crucial bacterial signals within biofilms, are known to degrade through pH and temperature-dependent hydrolysis. However, the impact of climate change on AHLs and thus on biofilm form and function is presently unknown. This study investigates the impact of changes in pH and temperature on the hydrolysis rate, half-life time and quantitative abundance of different AHLs on daily and seasonal timescales for current conditions and future climate change scenarios. We established the mathematical relationships between pH, hydrolysis rates/half-life times and temperature, which revealed that natural daily pH-driven changes within biofilms cause the greatest fluctuations in AHL concentration (up to 9-fold). Season-dependant temperature enhanced or reduced the observed daily dynamics, leading to higher winter and lower summer concentrations and caused a shift in timing of the highest and lowest AHL concentration by up to two hours. Simulated future conditions based on climate change projections caused an overall reduction of AHL degradation and led to higher AHL concentrations persisting for longer across both the daily and seasonal cycles. This study provides valuable quantitative insights into the theoretical natural dynamics of AHL concentrations. We highlight critical knowledge gaps on the scale of abiotic daily and seasonal fluctuations affecting estuarine and coastal biofilms and on the biofilms' buffering capacity. Detailed experimental studies of daily and seasonal dynamics of AHL concentrations and assessment of the potential implications for a suite of more complex interactions are required. Substantial fluctuations like those we show in this study, particularly with regards to concentration and timing, will likely have far reaching implications for fundamental ecosystem processes and important ecosystem services such as larval settlement and coastal sediment stabilisation.


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