protonic acid
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Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (7) ◽  
pp. 2015
Łukasz Kuterasiński ◽  
Małgorzata Smoliło-Utrata ◽  
Joanna Kaim ◽  
Wojciech Rojek ◽  
Jerzy Podobiński ◽  

The aim of the present paper is to study the speciation and the role of different active site types (copper species and Brønsted acid sites) in the direct synthesis of furan from furfural catalyzed by copper-exchanged FAU31 zeolite. Four series of samples were prepared by using different conditions of post-synthesis treatment, which exhibit none, one or two types of active sites. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, low-temperature sorption of nitrogen, SEM, H2-TPR, NMR and by means of IR spectroscopy with ammonia and CO sorption as probe molecules to assess the types of active sites. All catalyst underwent catalytic tests. The performed experiments allowed to propose the relation between the kind of active centers (Cu or Brønsted acid sites) and the type of detected products (2-metylfuran and furan) obtained in the studied reaction. It was found that the production of 2-methylfuran (in trace amounts) is determined by the presence of the redox-type centers, while the protonic acid sites are mainly responsible for the furan production and catalytic activity in the whole temperature range. All studied catalysts revealed very high susceptibility to coking due to polymerization of furfural.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 21
Andry Tahina Rabeharitsara ◽  
Ratsimba Marie Hanitriniaina ◽  
Rakotomalala Alain Fabrice ◽  
Rakotosaona Rijalalaina ◽  
Nambinina Richard Randriana

Veerabhadragouda B. Patil ◽  
Satish A. Ture ◽  
Channabasaveshwar V. Yelamaggad ◽  
Mallikarjuna N. Nadagouda ◽  
Abbaraju Venkataraman

2020 ◽  
Vol 1209 ◽  
pp. 127924 ◽  
Chulei Zhao ◽  
Ke Gao ◽  
Chaoyun Ma ◽  
Mei Wu ◽  
Kaihang Cao ◽  

2020 ◽  
Vol 4 (12) ◽  
pp. 3585-3593
Gang Ye ◽  
Yuru Liu ◽  
Jian Liu ◽  
Xinkai Qiu ◽  
L. Jan Anton Koster ◽  

Conjugated polyions (CPIs) offer synthetic tunability and selective processing into insulating, semiconducting and metallic states simply by controlling acidity.

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