Fire protection is a basic safety issue for all categories of buildings. The criteria for effective fire suppression and the characteristics of extinguishing systems in insulated areas depend on a combination of factors. The main influences include the type of combustible material, ambient temperature, type of spray extinguisher, air inflow and outflow conditions, and space geometry. This article analyzes the most widely used fire-extinguishing technologies in different locations. The main aspects of using the pulsed delivery technology of extinguishing liquid are considered. Based on the analysis of publications from the last decade, it is possible to develop intelligent systems for recording fires and extinguishing fires in the premises.
The study evaluates the visibility of solar photovoltaic power plant construction for electricity generation based on a 20 MW capacity. The assessment was performed for four main cities in Iraq by using hourly experimental weather data (solar irradiance, wind speed, and ambient temperature). The experimental data was measured for the period from 1st January to 31st December of the year 2019, where the simulation process was performed at a 1 h time step resolution at the same resolution as the experimental data. There are two positionings considered for solar photovoltaic modules: (i) annual optimum tilt angle and (ii) two-axis tracking system. The effect of the ambient temperature and wind on the overall system energy generated was taken into consideration. The study is targeted at evaluating the potential solar energy in Iraq and the viability of electricity generation using a 20 MW solar photovoltaic power plant. The results showed that the overall performance of the suggested power plant capacity is highly dependent on the solar irradiance intensity and the ambient temperature with wind speed. The current 20 MW solar photovoltaic power plant capacity shows the highest energy that can be generated in the mid-western region and the lowest in the northeast regions. The greatest influence of the ambient temperature on the energy genrated by power plants is observed in the southern regions.
The emission limit of non-volatile particles (i.e., particles that do not evaporate at 350 °C) with size >23 nm, in combination with the real driving emissions (RDE) regulation in 2017, resulted in the introduction of gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) in all light-duty vehicles with gasoline direct injection engines in Europe. Even though there are studies that have examined the particulate emissions at or beyond the current RDE boundary conditions, there is a lack of studies combining most or all worst cases (i.e., conditions that increase the emissions). In this study, we challenged a fresh (i.e., no accumulation of soot or ash) “advanced” prototype GPF at different temperatures (down to −9 °C), aggressive drive cycles and hard accelerations (beyond the RDE limits), high payload (up to 90%), use of all auxiliaries (air conditioning, heating of the seats and the rear window), and cold starts independently or simultaneously. Under hot engine conditions, the increase of the particulate emissions due to higher payload and lower ambient temperature was 30–90%. The cold start at low ambient temperature, however, had an effect on the emissions of up to a factor of 20 for particles >23 nm or 300 when considering particles <23 nm. We proposed that the reason for these high emissions was the incomplete combustion and the low efficiency of the three-way oxidation catalyst. This resulted in a high concentration of species that were in the gaseous phase at the high temperature of the close-coupled GPF and thus could not be filtered by the GPF. As the exhaust gas cooled down, these precursor species formed particles that could not be evaporated at 350 °C (the temperature of the particle number system). These results highlight the importance of the proper calibration of the engine out emissions at all conditions, even when a GPF is installed.