Banana is one of the most produced and consumed fruits in the world and its fruit peel accounts for about 40% of the total fresh quantity of ripe fruit, which is usually regarded as waste and poses serious environmental hazards. However, it is a promising source of natural bioactive compounds including phenolic compounds. Determination of the phenolic compounds in fruit peel from different cultivars and subgroups over a range of maturities provides convincing information for making full use of them. This study developed a sensitive and reliable analytical method—ultra-high performance liquid chromatography—coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for measuring phenolic compounds in fruit peel from different ecotype cultivars and subgroups with different maturity. The results showed that quinic acid had the highest concentration ratio among the main phenolic compounds in the green/ripe peel of all banana cultivars; among all banana cultivars, the total phenolic compound contents of green banana peel were significantly higher than that of ripe banana peel; the total phenolic compound contents in the green/ripe fruit peel of non-dessert bananas were significantly higher than that of dessert bananas (green: non-dessert banana 1.48 ± 0.44 mg/g vs. dessert banana 0.97 ± 0.12 mg/g; ripe: non-dessert banana 0.26 ± 0.13 mg/g vs. dessert banana 0.19 ± 0.06 mg/g). These data provide a basis for the rational utilization of phenolic compound extractions from banana peel with huge biomass in the next step.
For ages, pure sugars or edible crops have produced lactic acid. However, a major concern on lactic acid production lies in the cost of the raw materials used. Thus, an alternative to overcome this situation is urgently needed. Characterization of banana peels shows that it contains promising sugar that can be utilized for lactic acid production, which are xylose (0.774 g/L), glucose (0.756 g/L) and fructose (0.532 g/L). Thus, this study aims to screen the potential of banana peel as a substrate by using Rhizopus oryzae through batch fermentation for lactic acid production, as R. oryzae can synthesize lactic acid in low nutrient requirements. Two-level factorial analysis was designed to screen the effects of moisture content (60% and 80%), temperature (27 °C and 40 °C), pH (4.5 and 6.5) and inoculum size (1x104 spores/mL and 1x108 spores/g) on the lactic acid production. Based on the Two-level factorial (2LF) analysis, the highest lactic acid production of 0.0813 g/L was detected at 80 % moisture content, pH 4.5, the temperature of 27 °C and inoculum size of 1x104 spores/g. The findings show that most of the conditions have a significant difference between each other (p<0.05). Therefore, the fermentation of banana peels by R. oryzae could be a promising method to produce a lactic acid concentration.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the interaction effect of storage time and concentration of plantain peel extract and lemongrass on organoleptic characteristics (color, aroma, texture, and elasticity) and total microbes in chicken meatballs. This study used a 2-Factorial Completely Randomized Design method. The first factor was storage time with three levels, namely 0 days (T0), 2 days (T1), and 4 days (T2. Meanwhile, the second factor was the concentration of plantain peel and lemongrass extract with three levels, namely 0% (C0), 30% plantain peel extract + 20% lemongrass extract (C1), 20% banana peel extract + 30% lemongrass extract (C2), and 25% banana peel extract + 25% lemongrass extract (C3). Observation variables were organoleptic tests which included color, aroma, texture, elasticity, and shelf life after treatment based on the results of the total plate count (TPC) calculation. The results show that the 2-day storage period with the addition of 25% plantain peel extract and 25% lemongrass extract (T1C3) was the best treatment for organoleptic characteristics (color, aroma, texture, and elasticity). Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that the administration of plantain peel extract and lemongrass was able to maintain the quality of chicken meatballs for two different days compared to the control. Treatment with a storage period of 2 days with 25% plantain peel extract and 25% lemongrass extract (T1C3) was the best treatment that was most favored by the panelists and had the least number of microbial colonies.Keywords: Meatballs, preservatives, banana peel extract and lemongrass, storage time.ABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh interaksi lama penyimpanan dan konsentrasi ekstrak kulit pisang raja dan serai terhadap uji organoleptik (warna, aroma, tekstur dan kekenyalan) dan total mikroba pada bakso ayam. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial 2 Faktor. Faktor Pertama adalah lama penyimpanan yang terdiri dari tiga taraf yaitu 0 hari (T0), 2 hari (T1) dan 4 hari (T2), faktor kedua yaitu perlakuan ekstrak kulit pisang raja yang terdiri atas tiga taraf yaitu konsentrasi 0% (C0), konsentrasi ekstrak kulit pisang raja 30% + konsentrasi ekstrak serai 20% (C1), konsentrasi ekstrak kulit pisang raja 20% + konsentrasi ekstrak serai 30% (C2), konsentrasi ekstrak kulit pisang raja 25% + konsentrasi serai 25% (C3). Variabel pengamatan yaitu uji organoleptik yang meliputi warna, aroma, tekstur, kekenyalan dan daya simpan setelah perlakuan berdasarkan hasil perhitungan jumlah total plate count (TPC). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan lama penyimpanan 2 hari dengan penambahan ekstrak kulit pisang raja 25% dab serai 25% (T1C3) merupakan perlakuan terbaik untuk uji organoleptik (warna, aroma, tekstur dan kekenyalan). Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa pemberian ekstrak kulit pisang raja dan serai mampu mempertahankan kualitas bakso ayam selama dua hari yang berbeda dengan kontrol. Perlakuan dengan lama penyimpanan 2 hari dengan pemberianekstrak kulit pisang raja 25% dan serai 25% (T1C3) merupakan perlakuan terbaik yang paling disukai oleh panelis dan memiliki jumlah koloni mikroba paling sedikit.Kata kunci: Bakso, pengawet, ekstrak kulit pisang dan serai, lama penyimpanan
The objective was to determine the exact moisture percentage for the formation of pellets from the banana peel, residues of banana candies, and the bromatological analysis of the final product. For the of the peel of banana, 10 different dehydration times were performed: zero; two; four; six; eight; ten; twelve; fourteen; sixteen and eighteen hours of dehydration, with four replicates each treatment. The exact moisture percentage for pellet formation was 18.84% moisture. The final product presented in its bromatological composition 81,16% of DM, 8,59% of CP, 26,8% of TND , 71,48% of NDF, 54,64% ADF, 0,8% of EE, 13,43% MM, 86,54% of OM, 0,22% of P e 0,068% of K. Evaluations in animal models should be performed in place of corn to determine the replacement levels in the diets and the performance of the animals.
In diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely linked to hyperglycemia metabolism. This study aimed to find out how a banana peel supplemented diet affected histological and liver function changes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, antioxidants, and tryptophan are all contained in banana peel flour (BPF). Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that has been linked to depression and anxiety. This post-test-only control group study was conducted on twenty-five male Wistar rats which were separated into five groups with different treatments. Groups II to V were diabetic rats model groups that consumed standard diet mixed with BPF 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20%, respectively, while group I was a healthy control group fed a standard diet. Hepatic enzyme transaminase (Alanine Aminotransferase-ALT and Aspartate Aminotransferase - AST) and Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining were analyzed with the NAFLD score to examine the liver function and hepatocellular morphology. A change in liver function was observed, as well as a substantial change in the levels of ALT and AST. The NAFLD score with HE staining showed substantial improvements in liver morphology, which was better seen at a 20% BPF dose. The current study supported the hypothesis that BPF had a hepatoprotective effect in diabetic rats, which may be due to the mechanism of controlling the hepatic enzyme transaminase and inducing liver regeneration.