Surfactants are extensively employed in industrial, agricultural, and food, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals applications. Chemically produced surfactants cause environmental and toxicological hazards. Recently, considerable research has led to environmentally friendly procedures for the synthesis of several forms of biosurfactants from microorganisms. In comparison to chemical surfactants, biosurfactants have several advantages, such as biodegradability, low toxicity and ease of availability of raw materials. This paper offers an in-depth review of the types of surfactants, the need for bio-surfactants, their types and advantages, especially biodegradability. It also examines the biodegradability of selected four surfactants and finds that the biosurfactant is more easily biodegradable than the chemical surfactants.
<p class="Abstract"><em>Over time, The number of IKMs which continued to increase and were not accompanied by data collection was what ultimately caused problems. The lack of awareness to register a business that is owned is still one of the causes. In fact, this is very important to do. Seeing the above phenomenon makes us aware of the importance of data collection on IKM, especially those in Jepara District, Jepara Regency. This research method uses a qualitative approaches. The analysis technique used is descriptive analysis and normative analysis. The process of validation and data collection is based on the indocators contained in the querstionnaire. 9 indicators in data collection, namely IKM business actors, Business Permits, Type Of Industry, KBLI, Number Of Workers, Raw Materials, Working Capital, Production Capacity, and Investment. The final result of the activity is a data master document for IKM in Jepara District which is compiled in order to support the smooth implementation of goods / services procurement. </em></p><p class="Abstract"> </p>
A large portion of food loss and waste (FSL) is comprised of seeds and stones. Exotic fruits such as mangoes, lychees and avocados, in which the seeds account for a significant part of the weight and volume of the entire product, are most affected by this problem. The seeds contain a large quantity of polyphenols and essential nutrients, which makes them a good material for extraction. However, conventional extraction techniques are considered time-consuming, and therefore significantly limit their use on an industrial scale. An alternative method of managing the seeds may be their energy utilization. In this study, torrefaction was proposed as a method for the valorization of exotic fruit seeds (mango, lychee, avocado). Thus, the influence of torrefaction temperature (200–300 °C) on the physical-chemical properties of substrates was investigated. The obtained results revealed that, in relation to the unprocessed raw materials, the torreficates are characterized by improved hydrophobic properties (all materials are classified as extremely hydrophobic), higher heating value (at 300 °C the values increased from 17,789 to 24,842 kJ∙kg−1 for mango, from 18,582 to 26,513 kJ∙kg−1 for avocado, and from 18,584 to 25,241 kJ∙kg−1 for lychee), higher fixed carbon content (which changed from 7.87–15.38% to 20.74–32.47%), and significant mass loss, by 50–60%. However, as a side effect of thermal treatment, an increase in ash content (approx. 2–3 times but still less than in coal) was observed. Therefore, the torreficates may be competitive with coal. The possibility of using residues from the food processing sector as a substrate for energy purposes is important from the point of view of environment protection and is a part of the functioning of the circular economy.
The article presents the synthesis of organosilicon compounds based on industrial secondary raw materials of urea-formaldehyde resin and tetraethoxysilane. The structural characteristics of the synthesized hydrophobic polymer have been studied. Compositions of hydrophobic compositions based on synthesized poly (oligomers) have been developed and tested in concrete mixtures.