aperture radar
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A. M. H. Ansar ◽  
A. H. M. Din ◽  
A. S. A. Latip ◽  
M. N. M. Reba

Abstract. Technology advancement has urged the development of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) to be upgraded and transformed. The main contribution of the InSAR technique is that the surface deformation changes measurements can achieve up to millimetre level precision. Environmental problems such as landslides, volcanoes, earthquakes, excessive underground water production, and other phenomena can cause the earth's surface deformation. Deformation monitoring of a surface is vital as unexpected movement, and future behaviour can be detected and predicted. InSAR time series analysis, known as Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI), has become an essential tool for measuring surface deformation. Therefore, this study provides a review of the PSI techniques used to measure surface deformation changes. An overview of surface deformation and the basic principles of the four techniques that have been developed from the improvement of Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PSInSAR), which is Small Baseline Subset (SBAS), Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS), SqueeSAR and Quasi Persistent Scatterer (QPS) were summarised to perceive the ability of these techniques in monitoring surface deformation. This study also emphasises the effectiveness and restrictions of each developed technique and how they suit Malaysia conditions and environment. The future outlook for Malaysia in realising the PSI techniques for structural monitoring also discussed in this review. Finally, this review will lead to the implementation of appropriate techniques and better preparation for the country's structural development.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 290
Jia Liu ◽  
Fengshan Ma ◽  
Guang Li ◽  
Jie Guo ◽  
Yang Wan ◽  

Ground subsidence is a common geological phenomenon occurring in mining areas. As an important Chinese gold mine, Sanshandao Gold Mine has a mining history of 25 years, with remarkable ground subsidence deformation. Mining development, life security, property security and ecological protection all require comprehension of the ground subsidence characteristics and evolution in the mining area. In this study, the mining subsidence phenomenon of the Sanshandao Gold Mine was investigated and analyzed based on Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) and small baseline subset (SBAS). The SAR (synthetic aperture radar) images covering the study area were acquired by the Sentinel-1A satellite between 2018 and 2021; 54 images (between 22 February 2018 and 25 May 2021) were processed using the PSI technique and 24 images (between 11 April 2018 and 12 July 2021) were processed using the SBAS technique. In addition, GACOS (generic atmospheric correction online service) data were adopted to eliminate the atmospheric error in both kinds of data processing. The interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) results showed a basically consistent subsidence area and a similar subsidence pattern. Both InSAR results indicated that the maximum LOS (line of sight) subsidence velocity is about 49 mm/year. The main subsidence zone is situated in the main mining area, extending in the northwest and southeast directions. According to the subsidence displacement of several representative sites in the mining area, we found that the PSI result has a higher subsidence displacement value compared to the SBAS result. Mining activities were accompanied by ground subsidence in the mining area: the ground subsidence phenomenon is exacerbated by the increasing mining quantity. Temporally, the mining subsidence lags behind the increase in mining quantity by about three months. In summary, the mining area has varying degrees of ground subsidence, monitored by two reliable time-series InSAR techniques. Further study of the subsidence mechanism is necessary to forecast ground subsidence and instruct mining activities.

Entropy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 96
Shujun Liu ◽  
Ningjie Pu ◽  
Jianxin Cao ◽  
Kui Zhang

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images are inherently degraded by speckle noise caused by coherent imaging, which may affect the performance of the subsequent image analysis task. To resolve this problem, this article proposes an integrated SAR image despeckling model based on dictionary learning and multi-weighted sparse coding. First, the dictionary is trained by groups composed of similar image patches, which have the same structural features. An effective orthogonal dictionary with high sparse representation ability is realized by introducing a properly tight frame. Furthermore, the data-fidelity term and regularization terms are constrained by weighting factors. The weighted sparse representation model not only fully utilizes the interblock relevance but also reflects the importance of various structural groups in despeckling processing. The proposed model is implemented with fast and effective solving steps that simultaneously perform orthogonal dictionary learning, weight parameter updating, sparse coding, and image reconstruction. The solving steps are designed using the alternative minimization method. Finally, the speckles are further suppressed by iterative regularization methods. In a comparison study with existing methods, our method demonstrated state-of-the-art performance in suppressing speckle noise and protecting the image texture details.

Weizeng Shao ◽  
Xingwei Jiang ◽  
Zhanfeng Sun ◽  
Yuyi Hu ◽  
Armando Marino ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 240
Yihao Wu ◽  
Jia Huang ◽  
Xiufeng He ◽  
Zhicai Luo ◽  
Haihong Wang

MDT recovery over coastal regions is challenging, as the mean sea surface (MSS) and geoid/quasi-geoid models are of low quality. The altimetry satellites equipped with the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) altimeters provide more accurate sea surface heights than traditional ones close to the coast. We investigate the role of using the SAR-based MSS in coastal MDT recovery, and the effects introduced by the SAR altimetry data are quantified and assessed. We model MDTs based on the multivariate objective analysis, where the MSS and the recently released satellite-only global geopotential model are combined. The numerical experiments over the coast of Japan and southeastern China show that the use of the SAR-based MSS improves the local MDT. The root mean square (RMS) of the misfits between MDT-modeled with SAR altimetry data and the ocean data is lower than that derived from MDT computed without SAR data—by a magnitude of 4–8 mm. Moreover, the geostrophic velocities derived from MDT modeled with the SAR altimetry data have better fits with buoy data than those derived from MDT modeled without SAR data. In total, our studies highlight the use of SAR altimetry data in coastal MDT recovery.

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