time series analysis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 7 ◽  
pp. 100163
Rafael Pinto ◽  
Ricardo Valentim ◽  
Lyrene Fernandes da Silva ◽  
Gustavo Fontoura de Souza ◽  
Thaísa Góis Farias de Moura Santos Lima ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 579 ◽  
pp. 117352
Guoxiong Chen ◽  
Qiuming Cheng ◽  
Shanan E. Peters ◽  
Christopher J. Spencer ◽  
Molei Zhao

2022 ◽  
Vol 175 ◽  
pp. 106493
Tarun Kumar Thakur ◽  
Joystu Dutta ◽  
Prachi Upadhyay ◽  
Digvesh Kumar Patel ◽  
Anita Thakur ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Dan Ye ◽  
Caijun Yang ◽  
Wenjing Ji ◽  
Jie Zheng ◽  
Jingyi Zhang ◽  

Background: Carbapenems are considered the last line of defence against bacterial infections, but their high consumption and the resulting antibacterial resistance are an increasing global concern. In this context, the Chinese health authority issued an expert consensus on the clinical applications of carbapenems. However, the long- and short-term effects of the expert consensus on carbapenem use are not clear.Methods: This study was conducted in Shaanxi, a northwest province of China. We collected all available carbapenem procurement data between January 2017 and December 2020 from the Provincial Drug Centralized Bidding Procurement System. A quasi-experimental interrupted time series analysis was used to evaluate the longitudinal effectiveness of expert consensus by measuring the change in the Defined Daily Dosesper 1,000 inhabitants per day (DID), the percentage of carbapenem expenditures to total antimicrobial expenditure, the total carbapenem expenditure, and the defined daily cost (DDDc). We used Stata SE version 15.0 for data analysis, and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: After the distribution of the expert consensus, the level (p = 0.769) and trend (p = 0.184) of DID decreased, but the differences were not statistically significant. The percentage of carbapenem expenditures to total antimicrobial expenditure decreased abruptly (p < 0.001) after the intervention, but the long-term trend was still upward. There was no statistically significant relationship between the release of the expert consensus and carbapenem expenditure in the long term, but there was a decreasing trend (p = 0.032). However, the expert consensus had a positive impact on the economic burden of carbapenem usage in patients, as the level (p < 0.001), and trend (p = 0.003) of DDDc significantly decreased.Conclusion: The long-term effects of the distribution of the expert consensus on the use and expenditure of carbapenems in public health institutions in Shaanxi Province were not optimal. It is time to set up more administrative measures and scientific supervision to establish a specific index to limit the application of carbapenems.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262530
Munerah Almulhem ◽  
Rasiah Thayakaran ◽  
Shahjehan Hanif ◽  
Tiffany Gooden ◽  
Neil Thomas ◽  

Background The effect of fasting on immunity is unclear. Prolonged fasting is thought to increase the risk of infection due to dehydration. This study describes antibiotic prescribing patterns before, during, and after Ramadan in a primary care setting within the Pakistani and Bangladeshi populations in the UK, most of whom are Muslims, compared to those who do not observe Ramadan. Method Retrospective controlled interrupted time series analysis of electronic health record data from primary care practices. The study consists of two groups: Pakistanis/Bangladeshis and white populations. For each group, we constructed a series of aggregated, daily prescription data from 2007 to 2017 for the 30 days preceding, during, and after Ramadan, respectively. Findings Controlling for the rate in the white population, there was no evidence of increased antibiotic prescription in the Pakistani/Bangladeshi population during Ramadan, as compared to before Ramadan (IRR: 0.994; 95% CI: 0.988–1.001, p = 0.082) or after Ramadan (IRR: 1.006; 95% CI: 0.999–1.013, p = 0.082). Interpretation In this large, population-based study, we did not find any evidence to suggest that fasting was associated with an increased susceptibility to infection.

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