1h mr spectroscopy
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Firat Kara ◽  
James M. Joers ◽  
Dinesh K. Deelchand ◽  
Young Woo Park ◽  
Scott A. Przybelski ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (Supplement_6) ◽  
pp. vi135-vi135
Vivek Tiwari ◽  
Pegah Askari ◽  
Elizabeth Maher ◽  
Changho Choi

Abstract Prior studies suggested glutamine metabolism in cancers may be altered to meet the high demands of nucleotide biosynthesis in cancers. We conducted 1H MR spectroscopy in 18 glioma patients and analyzed the metabolic data together with post-gadolinium MRI and cell proliferation rate (MIB-1 label index). The optimized MRS (TE 97 ms PRESS) provided well discernible signal of glutamine at 2.45 ppm and a negative-polarity signal of citrate at 2.6 ppm, without considerable overlaps with neighboring signals. The 18 patients had biopsy-proven anaplastic gliomas or glioblastomas. Concurrent elevation of glutamine and citrate was identified in 15 gliomas. These gliomas presented with enhancement in post-gadolinium MRI, indicative of broken blood-brain barrier (BBB). The 15 gliomas were grouped as subset-1 while the other 3 gliomas that had elevated citrate without elevation of glutamine were grouped as subset-2. Citrate level was significantly different between the two subsets of gliomas (1.4+/-0.5 vs. 1.6+/-0.4 mM). However, subst-1 had significantly higher choline (4.7+/-1.8 vs. 1.6+/-0.3 mM, p< 0.01) and higher MIB-1 compared with subset-2. Given that choline is a cellularity marker, a finding of high choline and high MIB-1 with elevation of glutamine and citrate suggests that the tumors have high tumor cellularity and cell multiplication competence. Of the 18 gliomas, 13 were IDH mutated with elevated 2HG. The glutamine and citrate levels in IDH-mutant gliomas were not significantly different from those in IDH wildtype gliomas. In conclusion, high-grade gliomas undergo a metabolic rearrangement of concurrent elevation of glutamine and citrate to attain malignant characters such as high cellularity, rapid cell proliferation, and BBB breakdown. IDH mutant and IDH wildtype gliomas may share a common metabolic rearrangement of glutamine-mediated citrate elevation to attain malignancy. Measurements of glutamine and citrate may serve a potential imaging biomarker for aggressive gliomas.

2021 ◽  
Pantelis Leptourgos ◽  
Sonia Bansal ◽  
Joshua Kenney ◽  
Praveen Suthaharan ◽  
James Waltz ◽  

Hallucinations may be driven by an excessive influence of prior expectations on current experience. Initial work has supported that contention and implicated the anterior insula in the weighting of prior beliefs. Here we induce hallucinated tones by associating tones with the presentation of a visual cue. We find that people with schizophrenia who hear voices are more prone to the effect and using computational modeling we show they overweight their prior beliefs. In the same participants, we also measured glutamate levels in anterior insula, anterior cingulate, dorsolateral prefrontal and auditory cortices, using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We found a negative relationship between prior-overweighting and glutamate levels in the insula that was not present for any of the other voxels or parameters. Thus, through computational psychiatry, we bridge a pathophysiological theory of psychosis (glutamate hypofunction) with a cognitive model of hallucinations (prior-overweighting) with implications for the development of new treatments for hallucinations.

2020 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Pamela Franco ◽  
Urs Würtemberger ◽  
Karam Dacca ◽  
Irene Hübschle ◽  
Jürgen Beck ◽  

Abstract Background The revised 2016 WHO-Classification of CNS-tumours now integrates molecular information of glial brain tumours for accurate diagnosis as well as for the development of targeted therapies. In this prospective study, our aim is to investigate the predictive value of MR-spectroscopy in order to establish a solid preoperative molecular stratification algorithm of these tumours. We will process a 1H MR-spectroscopy sequence within a radiomics analytics pipeline. Methods Patients treated at our institution with WHO-Grade II, III and IV gliomas will receive preoperative anatomical (T2- and T1-weighted imaging with and without contrast enhancement) and proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) by using chemical shift imaging (MRS) (5 × 5 × 15 mm3 voxel size). Tumour regions will be segmented and co-registered to corresponding spectroscopic voxels. Raw signals will be processed by a deep-learning approach for identifying patterns in metabolic data that provides information with respect to the histological diagnosis as well patient characteristics obtained and genomic data such as target sequencing and transcriptional data. Discussion By imaging the metabolic profile of a glioma using a customized chemical shift 1H MR spectroscopy sequence and by processing the metabolic profiles with a machine learning tool we intend to non-invasively uncover the genetic signature of gliomas. This work-up will support surgical and oncological decisions to improve personalized tumour treatment. Trial registration This study was initially registered under another name and was later retrospectively registered under the current name at the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) under DRKS00019855.

2020 ◽  
Vol 2 (6) ◽  
pp. e200033
Richard A. Komoroski ◽  
Jing-Huei Lee ◽  
Jeffrey A. Welge ◽  
Jonathan A. Dudley ◽  
Wen-Jang Chu ◽  

2020 ◽  
Vol 30 (8) ◽  
pp. 4284-4294 ◽  
Alexandra Ntorkou ◽  
Athina C. Tsili ◽  
Loukas Astrakas ◽  
Anna Goussia ◽  
Eleni Panopoulou ◽  

2020 ◽  
Vol 30 (6) ◽  
pp. 3759-3770 ◽  
Ivanka Savic

Abstract Despite the rapid increase of reports of exhaustion syndrome (ES) due to daily occupational stress, the mechanisms underlying ES are unknown. We used voxel-based 1H-MR spectroscopy to examine the potential role of glutamate in this condition. The levels of glutamate were found to be elevated among ES patients (n = 30, 16 females) compared with controls (n = 31, 15 females). Notably, this increase was detected only in the anterior cingulate and mesial prefrontal cortex (ACC/mPFC), and the glutamate levels were linearly correlated with the degree of perceived stress. Furthermore, there was a sex by group interaction, as the glutamate elevation was present only in female patients. Female but not male ES patients also showed an increase in N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) levels in the amygdala. No group differences were detected in glutamine concentration (also measured). These data show the key role of glutamate in stress-related neuronal signaling and the specific roles of the amygdala and ACC/mPFC. The data extend previous reports about the neurochemical basis of stress and identify a potential neural marker and mediator of ES due to occupational stress. The observation of specific sex differences provides a tentative explanation to the well-known female predominance in stress-related psychopathology.

Andrologia ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 52 (5) ◽  
Athina C. Tsili ◽  
Loukas G. Astrakas ◽  
Nikolaos Sofikitis ◽  
Maria I. Argyropoulou

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