resonance spectroscopy
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 147-160
Author(s):  
Cristiane do Bom Conselho Sales Alvarenga ◽  
Rosemary do Bom Conselho Sales ◽  
Rodrigo Barreto Caldas ◽  
Paulo Roberto Cetlin ◽  
Maria Teresa Paulino Aguilar

Abstract Metakaolinis the principal raw material utilized in the synthesis of geopolymers, although its ratio of silica and alumina contents is not ideal. Normally, the SiO2 content is adjusted with the use of silicates present in the activating solution. An eco-efficient alternative would be the use of glass waste as an additional source of silica.This work evaluates the efficiency of the alkaline activation of metakaolin, using potassium hydroxide and silicate, with and without the substitution of 12.5% of metakaolin by microparticles of glass. The efficiency of the alkaline activation was evaluated by X ray diffractometry, spectroscopy in the infrared region with the Fourier transform, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of 27Al and 29Si, specific mass and compressive strength. The results indicate the occurrence of geopolymerization with and without the use of glass waste. It was observed that the substitution of 12.5% favors the mechanical performance of the compounds at 28 days, with increases by 37% and 47% in the mechanical strength of the material with thermal curing and ambient temperature curing, respectively.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 82-87
Author(s):  
Serhat YILDIZHAN ◽  
Adem ASLAN ◽  
Mehmet Gazi BOYACI ◽  
Çiğdem ÖZER GÖKASLAN ◽  
Usame RAKİP ◽  
...  

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 205
Author(s):  
Linh Dinh ◽  
Soohun Lee ◽  
Sharif Md Abuzar ◽  
Heejun Park ◽  
Sung-Joo Hwang

Donepezil (DPZ) is generally administered orally to treat Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, oral administration can cause gastrointestinal side effects. Therefore, to enhance compliance, a new way to deliver DPZ from transdermal patch was developed. Ionic bonds were created by dissolving dicarboxylic acid and DPZ in ethanol, resulting in a stable ionic liquid (IL) state. The synthesized ILs were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, optical microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The DPZ ILs were then transformed to a suitable drug-in-adhesive patch for transdermal delivery of DPZ. The novel DPZ ILs patch inhibits crystallization of the IL, indicating coherent design. Moreover, DPZ ILs and DPZ IL patch formulations performed excellent skin permeability compared to that of the DPZ free-base patch in both in vitro and ex vivo skin permeability studies.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
James A. Garnett ◽  
Joseph Atherton

Historically proteins that form highly polymeric and filamentous assemblies have been notoriously difficult to study using high resolution structural techniques. This has been due to several factors that include structural heterogeneity, their large molecular mass, and available yields. However, over the past decade we are now seeing a major shift towards atomic resolution insight and the study of more complex heterogenous samples and in situ/ex vivo examination of multi-subunit complexes. Although supported by developments in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (ssNMR) and computational approaches, this has primarily been due to advances in cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The study of eukaryotic microtubules and bacterial pili are good examples, and in this review, we will give an overview of the technical innovations that have enabled this transition and highlight the advancements that have been made for these two systems. Looking to the future we will also describe systems that remain difficult to study and where further technical breakthroughs are required.


Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 194
Author(s):  
Gustavo Vaz ◽  
Adryana Clementino ◽  
Evgenia Mitsou ◽  
Elena Ferrari ◽  
Francesca Buttini ◽  
...  

The nose-to-brain delivery of neuroprotective natural compounds is an appealing approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Nanoemulsions containing curcumin (CUR) and quercetin (QU) were prepared by high-pressure homogenization and characterized physicochemically and structurally. A negative (CQ_NE−), a positive (CQ_NE+), and a gel (CQ_NEgel) formulation were developed. The mean particle size of the CQ_NE− and CQ_NE+ was below 120 nm, while this increased to 240 nm for the CQ_NEgel. The formulations showed high encapsulation efficiency and protected the CUR/QU from biological/chemical degradation. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that the CUR/QU were located at the interface of the oil phase in the proximity of the surfactant layer. The cytotoxicity studies showed that the formulations containing CUR/QU protected human nasal cells from the toxicity evidenced for blank NEs. No permeation across an in vitro model nasal epithelium was evidenced for CUR/QU, probably due to their poor water-solubility and instability in physiological buffers. However, the nasal cells’ drug uptake showed that the total amount of CUR/QU in the cells was related to the NE characteristics (CQ_NE− > CQ_NE+ > CQ_NEgel). The method used allowed the obtainment of nanocarriers of an appropriate size for nasal administration. The treatment of the cells showed the protection of cellular viability, holding promise as an anti-inflammatory treatment able to prevent neurodegenerative diseases.


Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 339
Author(s):  
Ewelina Wardzinski ◽  
Kamila Jauch-Chara ◽  
Sarah Haars ◽  
Uwe Melchert ◽  
Harald Scholand-Engler ◽  
...  

Obesity and mobile phone usage have simultaneously spread worldwide. Radio frequency-modulated electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) emitted by mobile phones are largely absorbed by the head of the user, influence cerebral glucose metabolism, and modulate neuronal excitability. Body weight adjustment, in turn, is one of the main brain functions as food intake behavior and appetite perception underlie hypothalamic regulation. Against this background, we questioned if mobile phone radiation and food intake may be related. In a single-blind, sham-controlled, randomized crossover comparison, 15 normal-weight young men (23.47 ± 0.68 years) were exposed to 25 min of RF-EMFs emitted by two different mobile phone types vs. sham radiation under fasting conditions. Spontaneous food intake was assessed by an ad libitum standard buffet test and cerebral energy homeostasis was monitored by 31phosphorus-magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements. Exposure to both mobile phones strikingly increased overall caloric intake by 22–27% compared with the sham condition. Differential analyses of macronutrient ingestion revealed that higher calorie consumption was mainly due to enhanced carbohydrate intake. Measurements of the cerebral energy content, i.e., adenosine triphosphate and phosphocreatine ratios to inorganic phosphate, displayed an increase upon mobile phone radiation. Our results identify RF-EMFs as a potential contributing factor to overeating, which underlies the obesity epidemic. Beyond that, the observed RF-EMFs-induced alterations of the brain energy homeostasis may put our data into a broader context because a balanced brain energy homeostasis is of fundamental importance for all brain functions. Potential disturbances by electromagnetic fields may therefore exert some generalized neurobiological effects, which are not yet foreseeable.


Gases ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-21
Author(s):  
Theodora Noely Tambaria ◽  
Yuichi Sugai ◽  
Ronald Nguele

Enhanced coal bed methane recovery using gas injection can provide increased methane extraction depending on the characteristics of the coal and the gas that is used. Accurate prediction of the extent of gas adsorption by coal are therefore important. Both experimental methods and modeling have been used to assess gas adsorption and its effects, including volumetric and gravimetric techniques, as well as the Ono–Kondo model and other numerical simulations. Thermodynamic parameters may be used to model adsorption on coal surfaces while adsorption isotherms can be used to predict adsorption on coal pores. In addition, density functional theory and grand canonical Monte Carlo methods may be employed. Complementary analytical techniques include Fourier transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, XR diffraction, and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This review summarizes the cutting-edge research concerning the adsorption of CO2, N2, or mixture gas onto coal surfaces and into coal pores based on both experimental studies and simulations.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Wei Yu ◽  
Haiquan Yang ◽  
Jingan Chen ◽  
Peng Liao ◽  
Quan Chen ◽  
...  

Macrophyte-dominated eutrophication (MDE) lakes have attracted wide attention due to the high phosphorus (P) loading in sediments that poses a wide spread risk for P release and pollution management. However, because of the superior productivity characteristics, the role of organic P mineralization in sediments in the internal P loading of MDE lake is still under debate. This study investigated the release dynamic of P in the sediments of Lake Caohai, a MDE lake in southwest of China, using a combination of the modified Huffer sequential extraction method, 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and composite diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technology. Results showed that the apparent P diffusion flux at the sediment-water interface was remarkably high, with a mean value of 0.37 mg m−2 d−1. The phosphate ester organophosphorus components (i.e., Mono-P and Diester-P) continuously deposited and degraded in the sediments maintained the high productivity of the lake, and the mineralization process plays a critical role in the release of internal P. Although the content of inorganic P in sediment is relatively high (accounting for approximately 60% of total P), the reductive mechanism based on P-containing iron oxide/hydroxide has a low contribution to the internal P loading, as was indicated by the low release rate of P-combination iron-manganese (Fe-Mn)/iron-aluminum (Fe-Al) (BD-P and NaOH-P) and the insignificant positive correlations between DGT-labile P and DGT-labile Fe in the sediment cores. Additionally, organic P in sediments could transfer to P-combination Fe-Al/Fe-Mn. However, in severely expropriated environments, the enrichment of P-combination Fe-Al/Fe-Mn in surface sediments inhibited the mineralization of monophosphate to some degree. Taken together, this study emphasized the impact of sediment organic P loading on the release of internal P in lake, highlighting that organic P is also the valuable objects for avoiding eutrophication of MDE lakes.


Metabolites ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 71
Author(s):  
Helena Ferreira ◽  
Ana Catarina Sousa ◽  
José Sereno ◽  
João Martins ◽  
Miguel Castelo-Branco ◽  
...  

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by deficits in social interaction, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors. ASD presents a 3:1 ratio of diagnosed boys and girls, raising the question regarding sexual dimorphic mechanisms underlying ASD symptoms, and their molecular basis. Here, we performed in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in juvenile male and female Tsc2+/− mice (an established genetic animal model of ASD). Moreover, behavior and ultrasonic vocalizations during social and repetitive tasks were analyzed. We found significant sexual dimorphisms in the levels of metabolites in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Further, we observed that female mutant animals had a differential social behavior and presented an increase in repetitive behavior. Importantly, while mutant females displayed a more simplified communication during social tasks, mutant males exhibited a similar less complex vocal repertoire but during repetitive tasks. These results hint toward sex-dependent alterations in molecular and metabolic pathways, which can lead to the sexual dimorphic behaviors and communication observed in social and repetitive environments.


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