biopsy specimens
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Phoenix D. Bell ◽  
Yuki Teramoto ◽  
Pratik M. S. Gurung ◽  
Zhiming Yang ◽  
Hiroshi Miyamoto

Context.— Grading small foci of prostate cancer on a needle biopsy is often difficult, yet the clinical significance of accurate grading remains uncertain. Objective.— To assess if grading of limited adenocarcinoma on prostate biopsy specimen is critical. Design.— We studied 295 consecutive patients undergoing extended-sextant biopsy with only 1-core involvement of adenocarcinoma, followed by radical prostatectomy. Results.— The linear tumor lengths on these biopsy specimens were: less than 1 mm (n = 114); 1 mm or more or less than 2 mm (n = 82); 2 mm or more or less than 3 mm (n = 35); and 3 mm or more (n = 64). Longer length was strongly associated with higher Grade Group (GG) on biopsy or prostatectomy specimen, higher risk of extraprostatic extension/seminal vesicle invasion and positive surgical margin, and larger estimated tumor volume. When cases were compared based on biopsy specimen GG, higher grade was strongly associated with higher prostatectomy specimen GG, higher incidence of pT3/pT3b disease, and larger tumor volume. Outcome analysis further showed significantly higher risks for biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy in patients with 1 mm or more, 2 mm or more, 3 mm or more, GG2-4, GG3-4, GG4, less than 1 mm/GG2-4, less than 1 mm/GG3-4, less than 2 mm/GG3-4, 3 mm or more/GG2-4, or 3 mm or more/GG3-4 tumor on biopsy specimens, compared with respective control subgroups. In particular, 3 mm or more, GG3, and GG4 on biopsy specimens showed significance as independent prognosticators by multivariate analysis. Meanwhile, there were no significant differences in the rate of upgrading or downgrading after radical prostatectomy among those subgrouped by biopsy specimen tumor length (eg, <1 mm [44.7%] versus ≥1/<2 mm [41.5%] versus ≥2/<3 mm [45.7%] versus ≥3 mm [46.9%]). Conclusions.— These results indicate that pathologists still need to make maximum efforts to grade relatively small prostate cancer on biopsy specimens.

2022 ◽  
Yoichiro Okubo ◽  
Yayoi Yamamoto ◽  
Shinya Sato ◽  
Emi Yoshioka ◽  
Masaki Suzuki ◽  

AbstractIn prostate cancer, accurate diagnosis and grade group (GG) decision based on biopsy findings are essential for determining treatment strategies. Diagnosis by experienced urological pathologists is recommended; however, their contribution to patient benefits remains unknown. Therefore, we analyzed clinicopathological information to determine the significance of reassessment by experienced urological pathologists at a high-volume institution to identify factors involved in the agreement or disagreement of biopsy and surgical GGs. In total, 1325 prostate adenocarcinomas were analyzed, and the GG was changed in 452/1325 (34.1%) cases (359 cases were upgraded, and 93 cases were downgraded). We compared the highest GG based on biopsy specimens, with the final GG based on surgical specimens of 210 cases. The agreement rate between the surgical GG performed and assessed in our institute and the highest biopsy GG assessed by an outside pathologist was 34.8% (73/210); the agreement rate increased significantly to 50% (105/210) when biopsy specimens were reevaluated in our institute (chi-square test, P < 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only the length of the lesion in the positive core with the highest GG in the biopsy was a significant factor for determining the agreement between biopsy GG and surgical GG, with an odds ratio of 1.136 (95% confidence interval: 1.057–1.221; P < 0.01). Thus, reassessment by experienced urological pathologists at high-volume institutions improved the agreement rate. However, it should be noted there is a high probability of discordance between a small number of lesions or short lesions and surgical GG.

Esophagus ◽  
2022 ◽  
Ryujiro Akaishi ◽  
Fumiyoshi Fujishima ◽  
Hirotaka Ishida ◽  
Junichi Tsunokake ◽  
Takuro Yamauchi ◽  

Abstract Background Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) are both involved in the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway and play key roles in antioxidant responses. In patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the correlation between the expression of these two proteins and the therapeutic response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (NACRT), as well as the difference in their expression after chemoradiotherapy, remains unknown. Methods Proteins involved in the Nrf2 pathway were immunolocalized in carcinoma cells in ESCC patients on NACRT with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin, followed by esophagectomy. The 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels were used to quantify reactive oxygen species. The changes in immunoreactivity before and after NACRT (Δ) were assessed. Results Tumor reduction following NACRT was significantly attenuated in pre-therapeutic biopsy specimens associated with high HO-1 status. TXNRD1Δ, HO-1Δ, and 8-OHdGΔ were significantly different in the ineffective and effective groups. The overall survival was significantly lower in high Nrf2 and TXNRD1 groups. In addition, high TXNRD1 expression was an independent prognostic factor in the multivariate analysis of overall survival. Conclusions The study findings indicate that HO-1 status in pre-therapeutic biopsy specimens could predict response to NACRT, and TXNRD1 status could predict overall survival of ESCC patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 118
Jitender P. Dubey ◽  
Asis Khan ◽  
Benjamin M. Rosenthal

Although infections with Cyclospora cayetanensis are prevalent worldwide, many aspects of this parasite’s life cycle and transmission remain unknown. Humans are the only known hosts of this parasite. Existing information on its endogenous development has been derived from histological examination of only a few biopsy specimens. Its asexual and sexual stages occur in biliary-intestinal epithelium. In histological sections, its stages are less than 10 μm, making definitive identification difficult. Asexual (schizonts) and sexual (gamonts) are located in epithelial cells. Male microgamonts have two flagella; female macrogametes contain wall-forming bodies. Oocysts are excreted in feces unsporulated. Sporulation occurs in the environment, but there are many unanswered questions concerning dissemination and survival of C. cayetanensis oocysts. Biologically and phylogenetically, C. cayetanensis closely resembles Eimeria spp. that parastize chickens; among them, E. acervulina most closely resembles C. cayetanensis in size. Here, we review known and unknown aspects of its life cycle and transmission and discuss the appropriateness of surrogates best capable of hastening progress in understanding its biology and developing mitigating strategies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 289
Katsunori Sekine ◽  
Ichiro Yasuda ◽  
Shinpei Doi ◽  
Noriyuki Kuniyoshi ◽  
Takayuki Tsujikawa ◽  

Background: The recent improvement of peroral cholangioscopy (POCS) maneuverability has enabled the precise, targeted biopsy of bile duct lesions under direct cholangioscopic vision. However, as only small-cup biopsy forceps can pass through the scope channel, the resulting small sample size may limit the pathological diagnosis of biopsy specimens. This study compared the diagnostic abilities of POCS-guided biopsy and conventional fluoroscopy-guided biopsy for bile duct cancer. Method: This multicenter, retrospective cohort study included patients exhibiting bile duct stricture with suspected cholangiocarcinoma in whom POCS-guided and fluoroscopy-guided biopsies were performed in the same session. The primary endpoint was the diagnostic sensitivity for malignancy. The size and quality of the biopsy specimens were also compared. Result: A total of 59 patients were enrolled. The sensitivity of POCS-guided biopsy was similar to that of fluoroscopy-guided biopsy (54.0% and 64.0%, respectively). However, when the modalities were combined, the sensitivity increased to 80.0%. The mean specimen size from POCS-guided biopsy was significantly smaller than that from fluoroscopy-guided biopsy. The specimen quality using fluoroscopy-guided biopsy was also better than that using POCS-guided biopsy. Conclusions: The diagnostic sensitivity of POCS-guided biopsy is still insufficient, mainly because of the limited specimen quantity and quality. Therefore, conventional fluoroscopy-guided biopsy would be helpful to improve diagnostic sensitivity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (4) ◽  
pp. 18-24
I. A. Palchikova ◽  
O. A. Denisova ◽  
G. M. Chernyavskaya ◽  
I. L. Purlik ◽  
T. P. Kalacheva ◽  

Aim. To study clinical and morphological phenotypes in different variants of the course of intrathoracic sarcoidosis and isolate new phenotypes.Materials and methods. The study included 121 patients with intrathoracic sarcoidosis aged 21–66 years (50.4% were men, 49.6% were women, the average age at the time of the disease onset was 38 years) over the period 2007– 2019. During the examination, patients’ complaints were studied thoroughly, and the diagnosis was histologically verified in all cases. During an extended histological examination, the quantitative and qualitative composition of biopsy specimens was investigated. The number of granulomas in the field of vision and the content of giant cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils in them were studied. Qualitative parameters were assessed for the presence of hyalinosis, Schaumann bodies, necrosis, stamping, calcification, fibrosis, and vasculitis. All patients were retrospectively divided into two clinical groups depending on the outcomes of the disease: group 1 included patients with a favorable course of sarcoidosis, proceeding without relapses and signs of progression; group 2 encompassed patients with an unfavorable course of the disease with relapses and progression, requiring long-term administration of systemic glucocorticoids.Results. The analysis showed that among all general clinical manifestations, only the presence of dyspnea, skin manifestations, and weight loss occurred significantly more often in the patients with an unfavorable course of intrathoracic sarcoidosis (р = 0.04; 0.02; and 0.01, respectively). Among morphological parameters, a large number of macrophages was significantly more frequent in the biopsy specimens in this group of patients (р < 0.01). 

Afsaneh Amiri ◽  
Golnaz Houshmand ◽  
Sepideh Taghavi ◽  
Monireh Kamali ◽  
Nasim Naderi

In this case report, we present a 46-year-old lady who has developed a rapidly progressive heart failure after an episode of COVID-19. The pathologic examination of her endomyocardial biopsy specimens was compatible with GCM and she was successfully treated with a combined immunosuppressive therapy regimen.

2021 ◽  
Mojtaba Moosavian ◽  
Elyas Kushki ◽  
Tahereh Navidifar ◽  
Eskandar Hajiani ◽  
Mahdi Mandegari

Abstract The oral cavity can act as an extra gastric reservoir for H pylori, and also the presence of the bacteria in the oral cavity is associated with a higher risk of dental caries development. The aim of this study was to determine the genotype and evaluate the association of the presence of H. pylori in dental plaque and gastric biopsy specimens in dyspeptic patients in Ahvaz, Southwest of Iran. In this study, 106 patients with recruited dyspeptic complaints were selected and from each patient, two gastric antral biopsy specimens and two dental plagues were examined. The presence of H. pylori was identified by the Rapid Urease Test (RUT) and the amplification of ureAB and 16S rRNA genes. Also, to verify a hypothetical mouth-to-stomach infection route, the enzymatic digestions of three genes of cagA, vacA, and ureAB in H. pylori strains isolated from dental plaques and stomach samples were compared for each same case. H. pylori was found in the stomach of 52.8% (56 /106) and the dental plaques of 17.9% (19/106) of the studied cases. On the other hand, H. pylori was recognized in the stomach of all 19 cases with oral colonization. Following a combination of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns of these three known genes on stomach and dental plague samples, 14 and 11 unique patterns were seen, respectively. However, for all H. pylori-positive cases (19), the comparison of RLFP patterns of these genes in the dental plaque and gastric biopsy specimens was different for the same case. This study showed, no significant association was observed between the presence of H. pylori in dental plaque and the stomach of the same case.

2021 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Michael T. Eadon ◽  
Pierre C. Dagher ◽  
Tarek M. El-Achkar

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