Patient Characteristics
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Author(s):  
Ida Kotisalmi ◽  
Maija Hytönen ◽  
Antti A. Mäkitie ◽  
Markus Lilja

Abstract Purpose One of the most common complications after septoplasty is a postoperative infection. We investigated the number of postoperative infections and unplanned postoperative visits (UPV) in septoplasties with and without additional nasal surgery at our institution and evaluated the role of antibiotic prophylaxis. Methods We collected data of all consecutive 302 septoplasty or septocolumelloplasty patients operated during the year 2018 at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, HUS Helsinki University Hospital (Helsinki, Finland). Hospital charts were reviewed to record sociodemographic patient characteristics and clinical parameters regarding surgery and follow-up. Results Altogether 239 patients (79.1%) received pre- and/or postoperative prophylactic antibiotics and within this group 3.3% developed a postoperative infection. The infection rate in the non-prophylaxis group of 63 patients was 12.7% (p = 0.007). When all patients who received postoperative antibiotics were excluded, we found that the infection rate in the preoperative prophylaxis group was 3.8%, as opposed to an infection rate of 12.7% in the non-prophylaxis group (p = 0.013). When evaluating septoplasty with additional sinonasal surgery (n = 115) the rate of postoperative infection was 3.3% in the prophylaxis group and 16.7% in the non-prophylaxis group (p = 0.034). These results show a statistically significant stand-alone effect of preoperative prophylactic antibiotics in preventing postoperative infection in septoplasty, especially regarding additional sinonasal surgery. Conclusion The use of preoperative antibiotics as a prophylactic measure diminished statistically significantly the rate of infections and UPVs in septoplasty when all postoperative infections, superficial and mild ones included, were taken into account.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258618
Author(s):  
George G. A. Pujalte ◽  
Isaac I. Effiong ◽  
Tais G. O. Bertasi ◽  
Raphael A. O. Bertasi ◽  
Susannah S. Rothstein ◽  
...  

Background Hospital performance is often monitored by surveys that assess patient experiences with hospital care. Certain patient characteristics may shape how some aspects of hospital care are viewed and reported on surveys. Objective The aim of the study was to examine factors considered important to patients and determine whether there were differences in answers based on age, gender, or educational level. Methods Cross-sectional study based on a hospital survey developed via literature review and specialist recommendations. This study included randomly selected patients 18 years or older who were recently admitted to the hospital or admitted more than 50 days before the survey was being applied. Survey domains included age, gender, educational level, factors considered important for the health care in a hospital setting and sources of information about hospital quality used by each subject. Answers description and statistical analysis using Fisher exact test were performed. Results The survey was applied to 262 patients who were admitted under different services. The most important concern reported was the risk of getting a hospital-acquired infection (67.18%), followed by understanding explanation from the doctors’ plans (64.12%) and doctors’ ability to listen carefully (58.78%). Women are more concerned about their risk of falling (p = 0.03). Patients older than 65 years find important that the doctors explain everything in a way they can easily understand (p = 0.02), while lower educated patients consider most if the doctor treats them with courtesy and respect (p = 0.0027). Conclusion Patient characteristics have an effect on how hospital care is perceived. Regardless of the characteristics of the population, the risk of getting an infection was the main concern overall, so it is important that hospitals promote actions to prevent it and share them with patients.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Andrew M. Blakely ◽  
Rebecca A. Nelson ◽  
Stanley A. Hamilton ◽  
Lily L. Lai

AbstractColon medullary adenocarcinoma (MAC) is a rare histologic subtype. Clinical presentation and cancer outcomes of MAC, compared to colon adenocarcinoma (AC), remain incompletely described. Annual age-adjusted incidence rates were computed using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (2002–2017). A cohort analysis using the National Cancer Database (2010–2016) compared patient characteristics in an unmatched dataset and prognostic characteristics in a 1:1 matched subset. Reported annual age-adjusted incidence of MAC has significantly increased, with an average annual percent change (APC) increase of 23.8% (95% CI: 19.2–28.6); concurrent AC incidence declined (APC: − 2.8, 95% CI: − 3.1 to − 2.8). Analyses of 1018 MAC and 210,784 AC unmatched patients showed that MAC patients were more often older, female, and white, with higher disease stage, poorly-differentiated tumors, right-sided laterality, and lymphovascular invasion (all p < 0.0001). Among those with known microsatellite status, instability was more prevalent among MAC than AC patients (82% vs. 24%, p < 0.0001). Multivariate analyses of the matched dataset revealed that MAC histology was not independently associated with overall survival. However, when stratifying by laterality, left-sided MAC was associated with shorter survival when compared to right-sided MAC (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.16–2.38) and right-sided AC (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.12–2.12). The reported incidence of MAC is increasing, in contrast to the declining incidence of AC. MAC clinical and molecular features are distinct from AC and likely account for outcome differences. Overall, left-sided MAC was associated with the shortest OS. Molecular profiling may improve treatment guidelines for MAC.


Life ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 1086
Author(s):  
Zita Szentkereszty-Kovács ◽  
Szilvia Fiatal ◽  
Eszter Anna Janka ◽  
Dóra Kovács ◽  
Andrea Szegedi ◽  
...  

Background: Psoriatic patients have considerably higher odds of being obese compared with the general population; however, the exact pathophysiological link between psoriasis and obesity needs to be elucidated. Methods: To investigate the association of psoriasis with established obesity-related gene variants, we conducted a population-based case-control study including 3541 subjects (574 psoriasis cases and 2967 controls from the general Hungarian population). Genotyping of 20 SNPs at ADIPOQ, BDNF, FTO, GNPDA2, LEPR, MC4R, NEGR1, NPY, PPARG, TMEM18, and UCP2 were determined, and differences in genotype and allele distributions were investigated. Multiple logistic regression analyses were implemented. Results: Analysis revealed an association between the G allele of the rs1137101 polymorphism (LEPR gene) and obesity risk (OR: 3.30 (1.45; 7.50), p = 0.004) in the early-onset group of psoriatic patients. Furthermore, the T allele of rs925946 polymorphism (BDNF gene) was also associated with increased risk of obesity in early-onset psoriasis (OR: 2.26 (1.24; 4.14) p = 0.008). Conclusions: Our results suggest that in psoriatic patients, there are prominent differences in the causes of obesity that should be accounted for, including not only environmental factors but also patient characteristics, such as the time of disease onset as well as genetic factors.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Chris Worth ◽  
Avni Vyas ◽  
Indraneel Banerjee ◽  
Wei Lin ◽  
Julie Jones ◽  
...  

BackgroundAdrenal Insufficiency (AI) can lead to life-threatening Adrenal Crisis (AC) and Adrenal Death (AD). Parents are trained to prevent, recognise and react to AC but there is little available information on what parents are actually doing at home to manage symptomatic AI.MethodsThree approaches were taken: (A) A retrospective analysis of patient characteristics in children and young people with AD over a 13-year period, (B) An interview-aided questionnaire to assess the circumstances around AC in children currently in our adrenal clinic, and (C) a separate study of parent perceptions of the administration of parenteral hydrocortisone.ResultsThirteen patients died (median age 10 years) over a thirteen-year period resulting in an estimated incidence of one AD per 300 patient years. Those with unspecified adrenal insufficiency were overrepresented (P = 0.004). Of the 127 patients contacted, thirty-eight (30%) were identified with hospital attendance with AC. Responses from twenty patients (median age 7.5 years) with AC reported nausea/vomiting (75%) and drowsiness (70%) as common symptoms preceding AC. All patients received an increase in oral hydrocortisone prior to admission but only two received intramuscular hydrocortisone. Questionnaires revealed that 79% of parents reported confidence in the administration of intramuscular hydrocortisone and only 20% identified a missed opportunity for injection.ConclusionsIn children experiencing AC, parents followed ‘sick day’ guidance for oral hydrocortisone, but rarely administered intramuscular hydrocortisone. This finding is discrepant from the 79% of parents who reported confidence in this task. Local training programmes for management of AC are comprehensive, but insufficient to prevent the most serious crises. New strategies to encourage use of parenteral hydrocortisone need to be devised.


BJPsych Open ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (6) ◽  
Author(s):  
Rachael W. Taylor ◽  
Rebecca Strawbridge ◽  
Allan H. Young ◽  
Roland Zahn ◽  
Anthony J. Cleare

Background Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is classically defined according to the number of suboptimal antidepressant responses experienced, but multidimensional assessments of TRD are emerging and may confer some advantages. Patient characteristics have been identified as risk factors for TRD but may also be associated with TRD severity. The identification of individuals at risk of severe TRD would support appropriate prioritisation of intensive and specialist treatments. Aims To determine whether TRD risk factors are associated with TRD severity when assessed multidimensionally using the Maudsley Staging Method (MSM), and univariately as the number of antidepressant non-responses, across three cohorts of individuals with depression. Method Three cohorts of individuals without significant TRD, with established TRD and with severe TRD, were assessed (n = 528). Preselected characteristics were included in linear regressions to determine their association with each outcome. Results Participants with more severe TRD according to the MSM had a lower age at onset, fewer depressive episodes and more physical comorbidities. These associations were not consistent across cohorts. The number of episodes was associated with the number of antidepressant treatment failures, but the direction of association varied across the cohorts studied. Conclusions Several risk factors for TRD were associated with the severity of resistance according to the MSM. Fewer were associated with the raw number of inadequate antidepressant responses. Multidimensional definitions may be more useful for identifying patients at risk of severe TRD. The inconsistency of associations across cohorts has potential implications for the characterisation of TRD.


BJGP Open ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. BJGPO.2021.0080
Author(s):  
Imke Demers ◽  
Femke Verhees ◽  
Leo Schouten ◽  
Jean Muris ◽  
Bernd Kremer ◽  
...  

BackgroundThe incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is increasing in high-income countries. HPV-associated OPC generally presents as an invasive disease, often with lymph node involvement, in relatively young patients with minimal or no history of smoking and alcohol consumption. Knowledge on HPV-associated OPC among primary care professionals is essential for disease recognition and early start of treatment.AimTo examine the knowledge on HPV-associated OPC among general practitioners (GPs) in The Netherlands.Design and settingCross-sectional postal survey among GPs in The Netherlands.Methodtwelve-item questionnaire was sent to 900 randomly selected general practices. Outcome measures included awareness of the link between HPV and OPC, epidemiological trends and patient characteristics. Data were statistically analyzed for gender, years after graduation, and self-rated knowledge of OPC.Results207 GPs participated in this study. 72% recognised HPV as a risk factor for OPC and 76.3% was aware of the increasing incidence rate of HPV-associated OPC. In contrast, 35.3% of participants knew that HPV-associated OPC patients are more often male, and just over half (53.6%) of the participants were aware of the younger age of these patients.ConclusionMore than a quarter of GPs in The Netherlands is unaware of HPV as a causative factor for OPC. Furthermore, there is a gap in knowledge on HPV-associated OPC patient characteristics. Further training on these topics could improve disease recognition and ultimately patient survival.


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