patient characteristics
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SungJoon Park ◽  
Sung Woo Lee ◽  
Kap Su Han ◽  
Eui Jung Lee ◽  
Dong-Hyun Jang ◽  

Abstract Background A favorable neurological outcome is closely related to patient characteristics and total cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) duration. The total CPR duration consists of pre-hospital and in-hospital durations. To date, consensus is lacking on the optimal total CPR duration. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the upper limit of total CPR duration, the optimal cut-off time at the pre-hospital level, and the time to switch from conventional CPR to alternative CPR such as extracorporeal CPR. Methods We conducted a retrospective observational study using prospective, multi-center registry of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients between October 2015 and June 2019. Emergency medical service–assessed adult patients (aged ≥ 18 years) with non-traumatic OHCA were included. The primary endpoint was a favorable neurological outcome at hospital discharge. Results Among 7914 patients with OHCA, 577 had favorable neurological outcomes. The optimal cut-off for pre-hospital CPR duration in patients with OHCA was 12 min regardless of the initial rhythm. The optimal cut-offs for total CPR duration that transitioned from conventional CPR to an alternative CPR method were 25 and 21 min in patients with initial shockable and non-shockable rhythms, respectively. In the two groups, the upper limits of total CPR duration for achieving a probability of favorable neurological outcomes < 1% were 55–62 and 24–34 min, respectively, while those for a cumulative proportion of favorable neurological outcome > 99% were 43–53 and 45–71 min, respectively. Conclusions Herein, we identified the optimal cut-off time for transitioning from pre-hospital to in-hospital settings and from conventional CPR to alternative resuscitation. Although there is an upper limit of CPR duration, favorable neurological outcomes can be expected according to each patient’s resuscitation-related factors, despite prolonged CPR duration.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Mingtao Zhang ◽  
Zhitao Yang ◽  
Borong Zhang ◽  
Tao Liu ◽  
Jin Jiang ◽  

Abstract Background Rotator cuff tears are one of the most common shoulder injuries in the older population. This study aimed to determine whether acromioplasty reliably decreases the critical shoulder angle (CSA) and describe any associated complications. Methods A systematic literature review was performed according to PRISMA guidelines using PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library Database. Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts using prespecified criteria. Studies where the acromioplasty was performed as a surgical procedure were included. Patient characteristics and degree of CSA reduction were collected from each individual study. All statistical analyses were performed using Review Manager (RevMan) 5.4.1 software. A random-effects model was used for meta-analysis. Results A total of 9 studies involving 1236 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The age of patients ranged from 23 to 82 years. The follow-up period ranged from 12 to 30 months. Of the 9 studies, 8 (88.9%) were retrospective, 1 (11.1%) was prospective, 5 were comparative, and 4 were case series. The mean CSA was significantly reduced from 36.1° ± 4.6° to 33.7° ± 4.2 (p < 0.05). The meta-analysis showed an overall best estimate of the mean difference in pre- and postoperative CSA equal to 2.63° (95% confidence interval: 2.15, 3.11] (p < 0.00001). Conclusions Acromioplasty can significantly reduce CSA, notably in cases of high preoperative CSA. In addition, the effect of lateral acromioplasty on the CSA was more significant compared to anterolateral acromioplasty. Acromioplasty was not associated with complications during the short-term follow-up.

Lauren G. Staples ◽  
Nick Webb ◽  
Lia Asrianti ◽  
Shane Cross ◽  
Daniel Rock ◽  

Digital mental health services (DMHSs) deliver mental health information, assessment, and treatment, via the internet, telephone, or other digital channels. The current study compares two DMHSs operating in Western Australia (WA)—The Practitioner Online Referral System (PORTS) and MindSpot. Both provide telephone and online psychological services at no cost to patients or referrers. However, PORTS is accessed by patients via referral from health practitioners, and is designed to reach those who are financially, geographically, or otherwise disadvantaged. In contrast, MindSpot services are available to all Australian residents and patients can self-refer. This observational study compares characteristics and treatment outcomes for patients of PORTS and MindSpot in WA. Eligible patients were people who resided in WA and registered with either clinic from January 2019 to December 2020. Results showed that PORTS patients were more likely to be older, male, and unemployed. They were less likely to report a tertiary education and were more likely to live in areas with higher levels of socioeconomic disadvantage. Despite these differences, treatment outcomes were excellent for patients from both clinics. Results provide further evidence for the accessibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of DMHSs regardless of referral pathway or patient characteristics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Yun Wei ◽  
Feiyue Wang ◽  
Zhaolu Pan ◽  
Meirong Wang ◽  
Guanghui Jin ◽  

Abstract Background Physical examination is a core component of consultation. Little is known about the status quo of physical examinations performed by general practitioners in community health service institutions in China. The aim of this study was to investigate general practitioners’ performance of physical examinations in consultations. Methods An observational study was conducted in 5 community health service institutions in Beijing between November 2019 and January 2020. Eleven general practitioners were observed for one workday. Information of consecutive consultations was recorded including patient characteristics, reasons for encounter, physical examinations performed by general practitioners, length of consultation time and time spent on specific activities in consultations. Results A total of 682 consultations of 11 general practitioners were recorded. Physical examinations were performed in 126 consultations (15.8%). Physical examination was more likely to be performed in patients visiting with symptoms (P < 0.001). Majority of the 126 physical examinations were distributed in “Head, face, and neck examination” (n = 54, 42.9%) and “Cardiovascular examination” (n = 55, 43.7%). No physical examination was performed on skin, male genitalia, female breasts and genitalia, and neurological systems. Total 2823 min of activities were observed and recorded. General practitioners only spent 3.1% of the recorded time on physical examination, which was less than the time spent on taking history (18.2%), test (4.9%), diagnosis (22.7%), therapy (38.4%), and health education (8.6%). The average time spent on physical examinations was 0.8±0.4 min per consultation. Conclusion Physical examination was insufficiently performed by general practitioners in community health service institutions in Beijing. More time and commitment should be advocated for improving the quality of physical examinations in primary care.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Dave A. Dongelmans ◽  
Fabian Termorshuizen ◽  
Sylvia Brinkman ◽  
Ferishta Bakhshi-Raiez ◽  
M. Sesmu Arbous ◽  

Abstract Background To assess trends in the quality of care for COVID-19 patients at the ICU over the course of time in the Netherlands. Methods Data from the National Intensive Care Evaluation (NICE)-registry of all COVID-19 patients admitted to an ICU in the Netherlands were used. Patient characteristics and indicators of quality of care during the first two upsurges (N = 4215: October 5, 2020–January 31, 2021) and the final upsurge of the second wave, called the ‘third wave’ (N = 4602: February 1, 2021–June 30, 2021) were compared with those during the first wave (N = 2733, February–May 24, 2020). Results During the second and third wave, there were less patients treated with mechanical ventilation (58.1 and 58.2%) and vasoactive drugs (48.0 and 44.7%) compared to the first wave (79.1% and 67.2%, respectively). The occupancy rates as fraction of occupancy in 2019 (1.68 and 1.55 vs. 1.83), the numbers of ICU relocations (23.8 and 27.6 vs. 32.3%) and the mean length of stay at the ICU (HRs of ICU discharge = 1.26 and 1.42) were lower during the second and third wave. No difference in adjusted hospital mortality between the second wave and the first wave was found, whereas the mortality during the third wave was considerably lower (OR = 0.80, 95% CI [0.71–0.90]). Conclusions These data show favorable shifts in the treatment of COVID-19 patients at the ICU over time. The adjusted mortality decreased in the third wave. The high ICU occupancy rate early in the pandemic does probably not explain the high mortality associated with COVID-19.

2022 ◽  
pp. 0272989X2110699
Louise B. Russell ◽  
Qian Huang ◽  
Yuqing Lin ◽  
Laurie A. Norton ◽  
Jingsan Zhu ◽  

Introduction. Pragmatic clinical trials test interventions in patients representative of real-world medical practice and reduce data collection costs by using data recorded in the electronic health record (EHR) during usual care. We describe our experience using the EHR to measure the primary outcome of a pragmatic trial, hospital readmissions, and important clinical covariates. Methods. The trial enrolled patients recently discharged from the hospital for treatment of heart failure to test whether automated daily monitoring integrated into the EHR could reduce readmissions. The study team used data from the EHR and several data systems that drew on the EHR, supplemented by the hospital admissions files of three states. Results. Almost three-quarters of enrollees’ readmissions over the 12-mo trial period were captured by the EHRs of the study hospitals. State data, which took 7 mo to more than 2 y from first contact to receipt of first data, provided the remaining one-quarter. Considerable expertise was required to resolve differences between the 2 data sources. Common covariates used in trial analyses, such as weight and body mass index during the index hospital stay, were available for >97% of enrollees from the EHR. Ejection fraction, obtained from echocardiograms, was available for only 47.6% of enrollees within the 6-mo window that would likely be expected in a traditional trial. Discussion. In this trial, patient characteristics and outcomes were collected from existing EHR systems, but, as usual for EHRs, they could not be standardized for date or method of measurement and required substantial time and expertise to collect and curate. Hospital admissions, the primary trial outcome, required additional effort to locate and use supplementary sources of data. Highlights Electronic health records are not a single system but a series of overlapping and legacy systems that require time and expertise to use efficiently. Commonly measured patient characteristics such as weight and body mass index are relatively easy to locate for most trial enrollees but less common characteristics, like ejection fraction, are not. Acquiring essential supplementary data—in this trial, state data on hospital admission—can be a lengthy and difficult process.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 367
Miki Uchino ◽  
Norihiko Yokoi ◽  
Jun Shimazaki ◽  
Yuichi Hori ◽  
Kazuo Tsubota ◽  

This study aimed to investigate the actual use of eye drops for dry eye disease (DED), the reasons for instillation behavior, and the relationship between instillation behavior and subjective symptoms. This web-based cross-sectional study collected data on instillation behavior, medication instruction, reasons for instillation behavior, and subjective symptoms. In total, 2645 participants were enrolled. The proportion of participants who instilled at the frequency specified in the package insert (the specified frequency) was 10.2%. The most common reason for not instilling at the prescribed frequency was as-needed instillation to alleviate subjective symptoms, and 61.3% of participants instilled when feeling symptoms. The improvement in the subjective symptoms score was significantly greater in the group that regularly instilled at the specified frequency than the other group (p = 0.0027), and patients in the other group were younger and had a higher rate of contact lens use and over-the-counter eye drops use. In conclusion, most participants did not instill the DED eye drops at the specified frequency to alleviate symptoms. In order to obtain the appropriate effect of eye drops, ophthalmologists need to impress upon patients the importance of regular instillation at the frequency specified in the package insert, while taking into account patient characteristics.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Tissa Wijeratne ◽  
Win Sen Kuan ◽  
Anne Maree Kelly ◽  
Kevin H. Chu ◽  
Frances B. Kinnear ◽  

<b><i>Background and Aim:</i></b> Migraine headache is commonly diagnosed in emergency departments (ED). There is relatively little real-world information about the epidemiology, investigation, management, adherence to therapeutic guidelines and disposition of patients treated in ED with a final diagnosis of migraine. The primary aim of the current study is to get a snapshot of assessment and management patterns of acute migraine presentations to the different settings of EDs with a view to raise awareness. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> This is a planned sub-study of a prospective study conducted in 67 health services in 10 countries including Australia, New Zealand, Southeast Asia, Europe, and the UK investigating the epidemiology and outcome of adult patients presenting to ED with nontraumatic headache. Outcomes of interest for this study are demographics, clinical features (including severity), patterns of investigation, treatment, disposition, and outcome of patients diagnosed as having migraine as their final ED diagnosis. <b><i>Results:</i></b> The cohort comprises 1,101 patients with a mean age of 39 years (SD ± 13.5; 73.7% [811]) were female. Most patients had had migraine diagnosed previously (77.7%). Neuroimaging was performed in 25.9% with a very low diagnostic yield or significant findings (0.07%). Treatment of mild migraine was in accordance with current guidelines, but few patients with moderate or severe symptoms received recommended treatment. Paracetamol (46.3%) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (42.7%) were the most commonly prescribed agents. Metoclopramide (22.8%), ondansetron (19.2%), chlorpromazine (12.8%), and prochlorperazine (12.8%) were also used. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> This study suggests that therapeutic practices are not congruent with current guidelines, especially for patients with severe symptoms. Efforts to improve and sustain compliance with existing management best practices are required.

Ursula M. Findlen ◽  
Jason Benedict ◽  
Smita Agrawal

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify common clinical practice patterns for providing advanced noise management features in children with cochlear implants (CIs) and evaluate trends in consideration of clinician experience and comfort with CI manufacturer-specific technology. Method: A mixed-model survey including quantitative and qualitative questions regarding providing advanced noise management features in the pediatric CI population was collected electronically via research electronic data capture. Survey questions spanned approach/philosophy toward provision of features, age of provision, and demographics of respondents. Descriptive statistics were completed to define common clinical practice patterns and demographic information. Results: A total of 160 pediatric audiologists from 35 U.S. States and five Canadian provinces completed the survey. Most audiologists (73.8%) reported enabling automatic directional microphones, and a vast majority (91%) reported enabling advanced noise processing features such as automatic noise cancellers, wind noise cancellers, and impulse noise cancellers in recipients' main programs. Audiologists ranked features in terms of importance for a school-age child with the top three ranked as automatic noise reduction, automatic directional microphones, and concha-level microphones. Importance of child-specific factors varied depending upon the specific feature of interest. Conclusions: Variability exists among providers in enabling advanced noise management features for pediatric CI recipients. Multiple factors, including patient characteristics, provider characteristics, and limited evidence-based guidance, could account for much of the variation. Overall, there is a trend toward automaticity for noise management. Additional studies are warranted to provide the evidence base for confidently programming advanced features for children using CIs.

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